Australian National Identity: Exploring Key Arguments And Perspectives
Nationalism and the Power of Stories in Australian Identity Formation
1. Using your own words, identify two claims Elder is making with regards to national stories and who tells these stories in the following quotation:
Nationalism helps make particular stories of Australian-ness. The longevity or centrality of particular national stories does not reflect the truth of these stories or their accuracy; rather, it reflects the power of the story. Or, more importantly, it reflects the power of the story maker.
2. Discuss two key arguments in relation to the role women played in the establishment of the early colony found in the documentary ‘The Floating Brothel’.
3. Define how Benedict Anderson conceptualises national identity. Specify two key components which make up Anderson’s understanding of national identity.
4. Outline two ways in which Shapelle Corby symbolises Australia that are described by Lambert (2007) in ‘Seeing Culture, Seeing Shapelle’.
5. Outline two key findings of the survey conducted by Tranter and Donoghue (2010) in ‘Ned Kelly: armoured icon’ and say what relevance these findings have for an Australian national identity.
6. Is the transcript of Geoffrey Blainey’s speech to Parliament House in 2000 a source that could be used for academic essay writing purposes? Give at least two reasons for your answer.
7. Outline two aspects of the vision held for Australia at Federation.
8. Nelson (2009, p.160) quotes Paul Keating where, in a speech given in 1992, he argues that the fighting along the Kokoda Trail in WWII should replace the events at Gallipoli in WWI as the focus of Anzac Day celebrations.
Outline two reasons given by Keating for proposing this change.
9. Marek Haltof argues that the purpose of the film Gallipoli is
…..to define the notion of ‘the Australian’ by going back to, and examining such local stereotypes and mythology as good Australians-bad foreigners, the myth of innocent Australia, the attributes of Australianness versus Britishness.
Explain two problems that Haltof identifies as the result of constructing the film Gallipoli in this way.
10 Explain what the term ‘cannon fodder’ means and the context in which it emerged.
11. What was America’s new world order and what did this mean for Australia at the end of WWII?
12. Explain the Venona Affair.
13. Discuss two reasons why Paul Keating wanted to have Kokoda replace Gallipoli as the cornerstone from which an Australian national identity could be constructed.
14. Burden (1994, p.163) argues that Indigenous Australian health has been adversely affected by “[the] rapid population decline which resulted from disease and violence … [which] had a dramatic effect on the ability of Aboriginal groups to maintain themselves as social entities.”
Explain two reasons why Burden thinks that Indigenous health today is still affected by these historical events.
15. Ally and Walker (2007) outline similarities and parallels between the ‘invasion narratives’ surrounding Asia during the late nineteenth century in Australia and current media representation of the veils worn by Muslin women.
Outline two similarities that the authors identify between these two eras and give examples to support your answer.
The Role of Women in the Establishment of Early Colonies
16. What is The Dreaming? What role does The Dreaming play in the construction of
an Australian national identity?
1. The term post colonial is directly related with complexity of different cultural expenses which implies the major extraction fro Austrian address. This theory directly related with reader demonstration including their common attributes. With the help of postal colonial some societies have maintai8n the basic rule which restrict the independent societies. This theory involves so many experiences and discussions which are dealing with Australian’s civilizations including slavery and suppression. The researcher attempted so many historical strategies to investigate Australian publishing networks. An emphasis is made to control the importance of Australian technical implementations. The colonial space provides some ethical issues which are necessary to investigate a social study. During the data collection method so many obstacle or limitations are coming which are trying to prevent the data analysis method. These drawbacks are overcome with the help of Colonial strategy. Stephen Simon has reviewed the entire overview and their developments which demonstrate the post colonial studies including their natural analysis. Some questions are arises to demonstrate the overall strategy by combining a fresh analysis. With the help of European strategy Australia made an impact oral view to control their focusing point. Form the overall conclusion the strategy are made in favour of Australian academic institution which specify the entire nationalism of Australia. These relations are made in between Australian nationalism and their reflection strategy. More importantly the Australian politics are possibly made to solve the major problems. The entire case studies are made in favour of Australian nature to produce an overall impact. There is no input strategy assumed for a political dimension including quantities differentiates. Each nodes are accessed the political strategies of Australian civilization. So many arguments are made by hybrid writer to conclude the national and international cultural system of Australian civilization.
2. All the women played the vital role to save the dying colony and also redeemed themselves. The cargo was full of thieves, canny con and those female whores. For saving the colony, must produce life, this is the ultimate moral. The government proposed to send eleven ships and get of penal settlement in the far side of Australia. This is kind of battle to survive. All types of prostitutes were there such as street girls, con-women and bag snatchers who could create the impression for the sexual affair and that would help to produce life. The small girl did the cat walk in the ramp for creating impression. This would have critically analysed over the history and past.
All the women were basically fighting for that dead colony. These women are the actual survivors and for that reason they were doing that type of businesses. This tale of women gave the breath life to that dying colony. In the documentary of “Floating Brothel” is actually the ultimate describer for the history of Australia and their government.
3. Benedict Anderson has the reflection on the conceptualization of the nation and this theory of how the cultural artefact and the national identity can be used as the dominant sense of self emerged and it has been spread throughout the world. Anderson makes a useful contribution for the thinking of the capitalism which helps in the development of the countryness. Benedict Anderson also makes the historical development of the nattiness and the age of nationalism is the root cause for the decline in the religion. Anderson also states that nationalism which has been rose which have been produced by the erosion of the religious communities in Australia.
Benedict Anderson’s Conceptualization of National Identity
The two components which Benedict Anderson has conceptualized in the making of the national identity is that Benedict Anderson does not accept the capitalism for understanding the natural identity of Australia as Benedict Anderson suggest in accepting the culture and the traditions of Australia so that people of Australia should believe in making of the protected nationalism so that the country should feel proud in symbolizing the national identity of Australia.
4. Schapelle Corby 36 who was found guilty by an Indonesian court on may 27 2005 made an attempt so that smuggling of 4.1 kg if marijuana have been taken from Australia to Bali. Schapelle Corby’s case should have been telecasted in at a TV show in Australia. When the case has been file in the court of Australia. According to the laws of Australia it has been determined that the Australian laws are against the criminal acts and they do not support the criminals. Schapelle Corby says that the Australian court has made a great help when the Indonesian court have rejected to cooperate with the Australian government. Australia still thinks that there is terrorist connection with Australia and there is a military threat. The majority of people lining in Australia feels that Corby was innocent.
5. Australian celebrates their origin fathers, such that Bob Hawke and Andrew fisher and Australian remember their military heroes like Frederick Bell and John Bisdee. Some individual heroic statuses are placed on Australian anti-social behaviour. These behaviours are so important for Australian political strategies which help to create safe national characteristics in favour of Australia. The social equality of Australia holds the importance of national character, with the help of notable expectation from a great cricketer Sir Donald Bradman in the 19th century including Ned Kelly. There are so many Australian heroes, who achieve their heroic status with respect to their notable expectations. Foundation heroes are not present for Australian mythscape as because Australians are not aware about a civil war also they have no experience about revaluation or military attack. Australian may be disagreeing for their letter claim by ignoring their narrative identity to follow the establishment of British penal colonies in the year of 1788.
Australian has celebrated the actions of their World War soldiers, commonly referred as Anzacs in the year of 1944. This name is coming by combining both army crops from Australia and New Zeeland. Most of the Australian identified their individual Anzacs. Sir John marsh was the great Anzacs who follows the Australian civilization rule with his donkey. The myth of Anzac refers to the major exploits that performed heroically including new nation which was formed for their earlier generation in the year of 1901.
With the help of Australian social survey and their common attitudes some data are observed to represent a research approach. These data collections are totally based on Australian electronic roll in the year of 2011. Data collection for this survey was ended on 1st may in the year of 2012. The sample size of the research proposal represented a huge response at a rate of 31 %. Variable designs are coming with the help of this survey investigation. All the survey reports are to be managed with the help of national representatives in favour of Australian census.
Shapelle Corby’s Symbolism and Importance to Australian National Identity
The researcher made an overall impact to represent the entire design which identifies the Australian national identity including their Australian historical figures. An overall category is selected in the data sample to mention Australian Bushrangers.
This figure surveyed an important thought out which is coming from Australian identity to chose their common choice. In the figure the researcher uses a simple binary regression to make an impact of social background including variable Anzacs.
6. Geoffrey blainey is a prominent Australian historian and commentator having the wide range of audiences. In the year between 1967 and 2007 he was the chairman or the member of the varieties of ranges of the Australian government councils. In the year 1984 Geoffrey Blainey has given the speech in the Rotary club in 1984 where the Australia’s Asian immigration was very high. Blaine’s controversial speech has ignited the fire which has started the beginning of the historical wars in Australia.
Yes this issue can be used as the academic essay writing as the topic is quite interesting and it has the clear justification of the over population in the country Australia. The topic is considered as a change in the political as well the social structure of Australia and this issue can be benefitted for the Australian government. This also reflects on the multiculturalism and it has made a change in the life of the historians. The speech which was given by Blainey also reflects on the economic success of Australia as the country also gets politically and economically stronger for the immigration rules adopted in Australia for the speech which was given by Blainey.
7. In the recent ages in Australia the colonies of Australia are like the same countries which have the normal houses, railway gauges and even the military was different for different colonies in Australia. It was not a favorable idea for stabilizing the condition in Australia. With the help of some of the colonial politicians like Alfred Dakin, Henry Parkes and Edmund Barton started working together and with a lot of hard work and dedication they have united all the colonies of Australia in order to form a federation.
Henry Parkes created the national government for Australia and the first written constitution has been drafted in Australia. The next vision could be the formation of the new capital of Australia and this is possible only when there is an introduction of the voting system. In the voting system all the colonies should have the right to vote for the benefit of the country. The colonies should not be biased in giving their rights for the development of the capital in Australia. The colonies have become the states and the vision for the formation of federal parliament according to the rules of the constitution.
8. The Gallipoli was based over the War between Newzealand and Australia and the Kokoda was basically the most famous track in Papua where the World War II was being located between Australia and Japan. Keating wanted to change the basis situation because it will be so effective because Kokoda is the most famous location where they won the world war against Japan. Anzac celebration must be held over that particular situation for that reason.
Key Findings of the Tranter and Donoghue Survey on Ned Kelly and Australian National Identity
9. Peter Weir who is the famous Australian filmmaker concentrates mainly on the artistic films which have changed the revolution of the Australian cinema and Weir maintained the culture of the Australian cinema as through his films peter Weir want to showcase the culture and the traditions of Australia which is different from the mainstream cinema. He concentrated in the geo political issues and the controversial issues so he often gets involved in serious controversies. The films of Weir have also changed the shape of the painting houses and it also deals with the iconic and true stories which symbolize the Australian culture and art.
Mark Haltof criticized the films of peter Weir by saying that films about the different cultures of Australia is of the dominant concern for peter Weir. Mark Haltof also marks that Peter Weir want to emerge the hallucinatory and the dream like stuffs in their films.
The two problems which have been encountered while the reconstruction of the film Gallipoli are that Mark Haltof tried to make the films which are not based on Australian myths and dreams as Peter Weir tried to focus on the artistic view of the Australian culture so in this case Mark Haltof should not get proper responses from the critics analyzing the films.
The second problem is that mark Haltof trying the film Gallipoli which is on the war between the Anzacs which includes the war between New Zealand and the Australians so in this case in war making films the violence created for the films should not be accepted by the Australian people.
10. annon fodder infantrymen are core participants in the wave attacks where a kind of strategy and technology being designed by the soldiers for attacking their enemies. This is related with the work of soldiers for their nation. The government uses the soldiers regarded as one kind of material which is expended in typical war. Government only wants the outcome after the war. The possibilities will not being taken as in the consideration; the government only invest them in the war. This is one kind of strategic goal to achieve or win in war. The cannon fodder is used as food for collective people or soldiers. It will damage many soldiers so it is called metaphorical food for any kind of enemy.
Cannon fodder is basically used in the situation where fighter or warrior is deliberately forced to fight against enemies which are the main cause of such a huge amount of causalities. This is completely different from other kinds of forces like Navy or Air force. The concept emerged in the sixteenth century but it was basically being used in the First World War by the army people.
11. The new order of America was that the US army had to follow the Nazi rules which were formulated by the great dictator Adolf Hitler. The Nazi party was formed by Adolf Hitler which indicates that the German has conquered some of the areas in America and the American government has to follow the rules of the Nazi party. After the World War 2 Germany were overthrown by the Russians. The establishment of the new order has begun before the outbreak of the World War 2.
Geoffrey Blainey’s Speech and its Relevance to Australian National Identity
The America’s new order is basically the conspiracy which has been organized by America of forming one government which indicates that the country should be governed only by the powerful individuals which comprises of the strong political leaders, the wealthiest people of America. The intention is to have a total and complete control over all the individuals which were lining in this entire world. The world should only have the rulers and the servants and it has been the fact for the New Order.
12. Venona project is basically remained secret over a large decade. This affair is the most sensitive issue of US intelligence prospective. This project was actually implemented because this is an activity where Soviet intelligence gathered all of the vital information of western military. This is implemented for the world war situation. A the project was initiated in the year of 1943, W. Clarke the deputy chief of Military signed for allowing Germany to War with US and Great Britain. US army initiated a counter-intelligence program called Venona Affair. National security agencies had proposed this issue for the world battle. In the year of 1943, it was being proposed. This program was lasted for more than 40 years. This affair is related with military intelligence service and foreign intelligence services are included with this issue with Soviet Union agencies. This Venona project produced dramatic situation for the western counter-intelligence period.
13. The reason behind the replacement of Kokoda to Gallipoli is very esthetical. The reason is very strong because the ultimate thing is Kokoda was a victory and Gallipoli was basically defeated. The council of the war memorial of Australia Paul Keating stated that the war is a vital mistake and for that reason the scheme was completely derailed for the Gallipoli Centenary of the war. In the year of 1993, Keating was trying to remake the all over national identity with the help of marginalizing identity of Gallipoli. The campaign of Kokoda fought on the other side. By the Gallipoli it cannot be taken under consideration because it confirmed in the homeland defence.
14. Indigenous group is related to the inhabitants of Australian continent. Those people were basically from Bathurst Island. The earliest or the first is known as aboriginal. Many religions are associated with this group. So there would have so many problematic situations over the past years in history. So these kinds of groups are affected and for that reason they are not being identified basically. The Indigenous society had basically suffered greatly in Australia. Generally these people have life expectancy, so many opportunities in the remote area for this kind of situation negative social issues were developed and for that reason Indigenous people had a dramatic effect and resulted from any kind of diseases and violence. Although the aboriginal group of people basically make up a kind of small percentage of the population but they are always affected by the poverty and tropical diseases. According to Burden in the year of 1994, self identification is the basic thing and it must be belonged to the Indigenous group. This group is actually not being included under the proper designation. Only six to seven percent people identified themselves in Australia. From the history it was basically known that the group descendant of single migration in the continent. So that’s why Burden stated that the group of indigenous people are affected.
15. According to Ally and Walker (2007) when there is invasion by the most of the Arab countries the attention of these invasions has come forwarded by the Australian media. Australian media coverages in demonizing, stereotyping, victimizing the people of the Islamic religion and mainly the women who worm veils and the terror attacks in Australia.
From one of the specific examples which have been taken for the support of this answer should be that the report which has been covered by Peter Manning about the attacks of 9/11 when it has been highlighted in the newspapers of Australia and the gang rapes in Sydney on September 11 2001.
In both the examples just like the Arabs and the Muslim religion sends a terror message to the whole world the attacks on the racialism have also been taken in Australia and the Australian media plays a big role in presenting the views of the people on the incidents which took place in Sydney with the Indians.
The other similarity is that the Australian media is also developing fear among the minds of the common people living in Australia just like the Islamic countries make them developed among the people living in the Middle East countries.
16. The dreaming related with the past, present and future time different concept. It is actually called the “dawn of time”. The government proposed the concept of dreaming which is basically oriented with the culture and religion and how Australia will capable to show their perfect identity of nationalization. The government had recognized the stereotypes and national symbols for their identity. The dreaming concept is described the overall constructed image of Australia to get their national identities and that will be reflected in reality of living of everybody in Australia.
The dreaming is basically consisting of way of life, national symbol and places. Australian government has cooperated with some of few rules and methods which have to be oriented in the country. The ideation has to be regarded by their own culture because it cannot be taken from the outside for their identities. Development or construction of national identity is so more vital for the growth of the country.