??? ?????? ????? html ????? http://www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf . ???? G o o g l e ???????? ?????? ??? ????? html ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ????????. Page 1 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 1 Citation Kato, A. (2006). Falsity distributeition of exalted ground tyro essays. Accents Asia [Online], 1 (2), 1-13. Available: http://www. accentsasia. org/1-2/kato. pdf Falsity Partition of Exalted Ground Tyro Essays Asako Kato Fudooka Seiwa Exalted Ground Introduction
Ever past the portico of verbal notice into the ground curriculum in 1989, telling has pulln contemplatefulness as an significant aptitude for Japanese tyros to balancecome. A multiformity of telling and inclineing customs feel been experimented unordered exalted ground English adjustes. Mate has besides been interposed as an liberal custom. The 2003 retrust of the Progress of Consider emphasizes “writing” as a manner of notice to transmit notices according to the judgment and the post (MEXT, 2003).
However, in sundry of the university porch exam-oriented exalted grounds, mate adjustes are qualified into phraseology-centered adjustes; in other say, the tyros are aptitudeed to mate imperfect phrases domiciled upon the constituencys or the phraseology purposes they are taught, and chances of mate potent essays are poor (Minegishi, 2005). It is gentleman that phraseology systeming is deficiencyed for servile origination, but it is a dare to counsel how to transcribe essays or similar paragraphs unordered the profitefficacious adjustroom hours, delay the qualification perhaps of some exotic disprogress elective progresss in precious exalted grounds.
Under these circumstances, the English Compound Ditrust of the Saitama Senior Exalted Ground English Education and Research Association hosts mate contends, for the judgment of promising tyros to experiment their English conversance and to augment their origination aptitudes in the conceive of mate. The conexperiment consists of two inferioritys: a translation inferiority and an essay mate Page 2 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 2 inferiority. In the essay inferiority the distributeicipants are fond themes and expected to transcribe their opinions in encircling 200 say. They feel 80 minutes to achievement on translation and essay mate.
The translation phrases are assigned according to smooth, but the essay theme is the corresponding for all. The translation distribute is conspicuous and graded by Japanese counselers; the essays are evaluated by ALTs (Assistant Disprogress Teachers) according to three criteria: creativity, conceiveion and phraseology. The winners are clarified depconsequence on the completion purposes of the two inferioritys. In this Nursing Dissertation, I conquer scatter some inadequate on the essays and awaken them delay a opinion towards trustworthyateing gists tyros feel, which conquer afford indication of how English is scholarly and what strategies tyros are accustoming to conceive their essays.
The earliest convergence of this Nursing Dissertation is on phraseology in mate not creativity and conceiveion, but some priggish intimateions for counseling and tuition are besides mentioned. Methods The grounds awakend for this consider are falsitys in tyros’ essays written in an essay rivalry held in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In this contend, the distributeicipants were fond the theme, “If you were to converge a renown, who would you love to converge? What would you love to ask him/her? What would you love to do delay him/her? The falsitys in the essays were categorized domiciled on Ferris’ (2005) Partition Sign (Fig. 1). Her “Common ESL mate falsitys” decthread into disgusting categories; morphoargumentative falsitys, lexical falsitys, syntactic falsitys, and spontaneous falsitys. This sign is domiciled upon the “Description of the elder falsity categories” (Fig. 2), which covers verb falsitys, noun consequence falsitys, expression falsitys, engagement crime, and phrase constituency (p. 92). According to James (1998), an falsity distributeition sign must be “well-developed, exaltedly elaborated, and self-explanatory” (p. 95). Ferris’ sign fulfills these deficiencys.
With this regularity it is lenient to trustworthyate global and national falsitys (Burt and Kiparsky, 1972, cited in James, 1998) which I assumed to Ferris’ sign of elder falsitys in Figure 1. Global falsitys are elder falsitys in phrase constituency, which executes a phrase arduous or impracticefficacious to discern, when-in-truth national falsitys are inferior succeeds, which do not purpose gists of apprehension. In Ferris’ nature, syntactic falsitys are considered global falsitys. Spontaneous and lexical succeeds, on the other index, are national falsitys. Morphoargumentative falsitys can be global falsitys, Page 3
Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 3 but when they do not above readers’ discerning of the gratified they are national falsitys. Figure 1 Vile ESL Mate Errors domiciled on Ferris’(2005) Sign Morphoargumentative Errors > global / national falsitys Verbs: Tense, From, Subject-verb covenant Nouns: Articles/determiners, Noun consequences (plural/possessive) Lexical Errors > national falsitys Engagement precious, Engagement conceive, Informal operation, Idiom falsity, Pronoun falsity Syntactic Errors > global falsitys Phrase constituency, Run-ons, Litter Spontaneous > national falsitys
Punctuation, Spelling, Capitalization* * “Capitalization” is assumed in this consider. Figure 2 Description of elder falsity categories (Ferris, 2005) Verb falsitys All falsitys in verb firm or conceive, including bearing subject-verb covenant falsitys. Noun consequence falsitys Plural or alterefficacious consequence defective, omitted, or deficiencyless; comprises bearing subject-verb covenant falsitys Expression falsitys Expression or other determiner defective, omitted, or deficiencyless Engagement crime All peculiar lexical falsitys in engagement precious or engagement conceive, including preposition and pronoun falsitys.
Spelling falsitys simply interposed if the (apparent) misspelling remaindered in an explicit English engagement. Phrase constituency Errors in phrase/portion boundaries(run-ons, litter, comma splices), engagement enjoin, omitted say or phrases, deficiencyless say or phrases; other unidiomatic phrase conceiveion. Participants The essays awakend for this consider were written by 148 exalted ground tyros: 46 pristine year tyros, 58 assist year tyros, and 44 third year tyros; 48 males and 100 females. The distributeicipants’ exalted grounds consisted of twenty openly-known grounds and two retired grounds.
Most of these Page 4 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 4 grounds are considered “academic” exalted grounds in that they furnish tyros for university exams, which resources the tyros contribute to be exaltedly motivated and are expected to be efficacious to persomalize their English phraseology, constituency conversance and lexicon in mate. Procedure All falsitys were conspicuous and adjustified. They were pristine adjustified into global falsitys or national falsitys. The verb-allied falsitys were considered as “verb falsitys”, hence, they were considered morphoargumentative falsitys.
However, indistinctness in the use of ascititious/inascititious verbs was considered a global syntactic falsity bepurpose it affects the sum phrase constituency. Also, firm falsitys were anticipated bepurpose the essay theme “If you were to converge a renown…? ” presumably requires the use of the occupied. As crave as the falsitys did not clash delay the discerning of the phrase, they were put into firm falsitys, i. e. , morphoargumentative falsitys. It was casually arduous to pull the thread betwixt lexical falsitys and spontaneous falsitys; that is, whether the engagement is a crime precious or simply a spelling succeed.
If the engagement had a disunited aim but pauses as a engagement, then it was treated as lexical falsity; contrariantly, it was conspicuous as a spontaneous falsity. However, if an impertinent engagement precious disrupts the aim in the sum phrase, it was considered a syntactic falsity. In imperfect, the determination of falsity nature depends on each phrase. As for open spontaneous falsitys in the corresponding phrase, i. e. , spelling succeeds, punctuation, and capitalization, the multiple succeeds were counted as one. Findings and Discussion Pristine of all, not all falsitys were largely categorized: some went further and opposing the categories.
In each prompting, falsitys were thriftfully authorized and adjustified according to the sentiment of the gist. If one elder falsity interposed other inferior falsitys, then concertedly they were considered to be a elder falsity. For copy, a phrase “*And, I omission to *go to away such as the UK, the US, *French, *Australlia and so on” was categorized as one syntactic falsity bepurpose the perversion of verb and adverb (go to away) purposes phrase colliquation, similar though this phrase interposed one lexical falsity Page 5 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 5 (French) and one spontaneous falsity (Australlia).
Secondly, a peril delay lists of “common” ESL/EFL falsitys, as Ferris (2005) herself purposes out, is that they may be balance-generalized to all tyros. Of progress, singular tyros feel contrariant disprogress capabilities and tuition traits; for copy, one tyro frequently omitted expressions and another tyro disarranged firm of verbs all through her essay. Although the statistics divulge a open attract of the gists, these do not exercise to entire tyro. Period deeptenance these considerations in judgment, the statistics afford interesting counsel.
The completion calculate of falsitys was 1518 (596 in 46 pristine year essays, 491 in 58 assist year essays, and 431 in 44 third year essay). The moderation calculate of falsitys per tyro was 13. 5 for the pristine year tyros, 11. 2 for the assist year tyros, and 9. 8 for the third year tyros. Considering the imperfect protraction of the essay, these were not slight calculates, although the moderation calculate of falsitys decreased according to the tyros’ year in ground. As a completion, syntactic falsitys dominated the quiet at 29%, followed by lexical falsitys (21%), morphoargumentative falsitys in nouns and spontaneous falsitys (18%), and morphoargumentative falsitys (14%).
According to the ground year, the most vile falsitys observed in pristine year essays were lexical falsitys, which intervening 24% of the completion, period syntactic falsitys intervening most falsitys in assist and third year essays, which amounted to 35. 2% and 31. 1% respectively. Unordered the pristine years’ lexical falsitys, “engagement precious” was the most vile succeed (93 in completion). As for assist year and third year samples, as sundry as 158 and 121 falsitys were made respectively in “phrase constituency. ” These findings evince that pristine year tyros did not feel suited lexicon period the assist and third year tyros did not use it adequately.
Page 6 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 6 Tefficacious 1. Vile EFL Mate Errors in Japanese Exalted Ground Students’ Essays Percentage of Completion Errors Conspicuous (%) Falsity Sign 1st year 2nd year 3rd year Moderation Morphoargumentative Errors Lexical Errors Syntactic Errors Spontaneous (Verbs) Firm Conceive Subject-verb covenant Completion Verb Errors (Nouns) Articles/determiners Noun consequences Completion Noun Errors Engagement precious Engagement conceive Informal operation Idiom falsity Pronoun falsity Completion Lexical Errors Phrase constituency Run-ons Litter Completion Syntactic Errors Punctuation Spelling Capitalization
Total Spontaneous Errors 5. 87 5. 87 0. 67 12. 4 10. 6 8. 22 18. 8 15. 6 1. 51 1. 01 3. 19 2. 68 24. 0 15. 3 1. 34 3. 19 19. 8 5. 7 14. 4 4. 87 25. 0 8. 96 1. 22 2. 65 12. 8 11. 0 5. 91 16. 9 13. 6 4. 07 0. 61 1. 02 3. 87 23. 2 32. 2 0. 61 2. 44 35. 2 1. 43 6. 11 4. 28 11. 8 11. 1 2. 09 4. 64 17. 9 9. 98 8. 12 18. 1 9. 51 3. 25 0. 23 1. 16 2. 55 16. 7 28. 1 1. 86 1. 16 31. 1 1. 86 11. 4 3. 02 16. 2 8. 66 3. 06 2. 65 14. 4 10. 5 7. 42 17. 9 12. 9 2. 94 0. 62 1. 79 3. 04 21. 3 25. 2 1. 27 2. 26 28. 7 3. 0 10. 6 4. 05 17. 7 Percentage of Completion Errors Conspicuous 14% 18% 21% 29% 18%
Morphoargumentative Error: Verbs Morphoargumentative Error: Nouns Lexical Falsity Syntactic Falsity Spontaneous Falsity Percentage of Errors by Year 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1 2 3 Year Spontaneous Falsity Syntactic Falsity Lexical Falsity Morphoargumentative Error: Nouns Morphoargumentative Error: Verbs Page 7 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 7 The syntactic falsitys, the most stipulated falsitys, were principally allied to verbs, for copy, the perversion of be-verbs, ascititious and inascititious verbs, accelerationful verbs, no verb use, the engagement enconfederate in alien questions, and firm indistinctness in reference to the occupied.
From an English educator’s purpose of opinion, it was rather piercing that sundry tyros made falsitys in the use of basic verbs such as “go”, “want” and “listen”, such as in “*I omission to go my future”, “*I omission befit a doctor”, and “*I omission to incline the story”. In the prompting of falsitys in occupied phrases, on the other index, the constituency was usually plainly emend, but the aim was beastly. For copy, if a transcriber mentioned a renown such as a literal man/woman, movie agent, singer, athlete or an suppositious sort, s/he had to execute the phrase occupied.
However, some used homely usher-in firm. One of these copys is, “*If I ride Doraemon’s duration deed, I can go entirewhere”. This sign of falsity was put into verb firm falsitys underneathneath morphoargumentative falsitys. As an description of Japanese tyros’ use of occupied, Thompson (2001) asserts that similar when tyros feel balancecomeed the mechanics of conceiveing unreal occupieds and wishes in all their entanglement, the gist of concept trash. Additionally, it is arduous for Japanese tyros to use occupieds emendly, for there is a unlikeness in the use of occupieds in English and Japanese.
Another sortistic in the syntactic falsitys stemed from clashnce from Japanese, their mother expression (L1 clashnce). L1 clashnce is considered a elder inaptitude to assist and exotic disprogress merit (Ellis, 2003; Ferris, 2005; Lightbrown & Spada, 2002; Littlewood, 2002. Some copys from tyros’ essays are as follows: (a)* He dared. (??????? ) (b)* They hit all balance the earth past 1984. (??? 1984 ????????????? ) In these phrases, the transcribers used English equiponderants for the Japanese say, i. e. , (a) ???? chousen-suru=challenge, and (b) ????? itto-suru=hit. Incidentally, the verbs “challenge” and “hit” are ascititious verbs, which resources these phrases are plainly defective; hence, they were adjustified as syntactic falsitys. Other syntactic falsitys from L1 clashnce are observed in Page 8 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 8 reference to the precious of prepositions. The copys are: (c) *I conquer confederate to outcome’s netachievement of UNICEF. (?????????????????????? ) (d) *I omission to espouse delay him. (???????? ) The transcribers translated the Japanese prepositional distributeicle “? [ni]” into “to” in copy (c) and “? to]” into “with” in copy (d). This sign of falsity is vile unordered Japanese tyros bepurpose ascititious verbs comprise prepositions in their Japanese aims; hence it is obdurate to divide whether a verb is ascititious or prepositional from the translated aims. The assist dominant falsity sort was that of lexical falsitys, distinctly in pristine year tyro essays. Here anew L1 clashnce was observed in engagement preciouss. (e) *I purpose his baseball reason is the biggest of all. (???????????????????? ) (f) *I omission to atlean Murasaki Shikibu three questions. ?????? 3??????? ) In (e), “soul” and “big” do not mate delay each other in this compound. The transcriber moderationt to say, “I purpose he has the strongest disposition in baseball. ” In Japanese “soul” and “spirit” are fond the corresponding translation as “? (???? )tamashii. ” Besides, neither reason nor disposition can be “big” but rather “strong”. In (f), the verb “hear” is partial from the Japanese engagement “?? (?? ) kiku”, which can besides moderation “listen” or “ask” in Japanese. These tyros faceed to feel selected up say delayout purposeing encircling gratified and construction.
Presumably, in English adjust, there is a contributeency for tyros not to advise-delay dictionaries for disprogress operation but to face up engagement aim simply, then memorize the deep translation of the engagement, and use this translation unmindful of compound. The third and disgustingth figureistic falsity categories were noun allied morphoargumentative falsitys and spontaneous falsitys, distinctly spelling succeeds. In noun falsitys, expression falsitys outnumbered the quiet, accounting for as considerable as 10% of the completion. The gist delay expressions stems from the truth that the Japanese disprogress has no concept of expressions and the countefficacious and uncountefficacious difference.
It is normal that Japanese tyros feel arduousy in using them emendly. In importation, expressions are usher-ind close the end in sundry of phraseology extractbooks, which in a sentiment is congruous to the disprogress Page 9 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 9 merit enconfederate forcible by Littlewood (2002) of a consider of outsucceed acquiring morphemes in their vernacular discourse. Plurals and expressions feel frequently been, and conquer abide to be arduous to counsel to Japanese tyros, which is why some counselers continue until the end of ground year to usher-in them in adjust.
Spelling succeeds, nice as spontaneous falsitys, intervening 10% of the completion calculate of falsitys. This was distributely bepurpose sundry tyros applied Japanese (katakana) pronunciation to English spellings. For copy, transcribers who spelled *performence (performance), *calacter (character), and *confort (comfort) did not face to spell according to his/her discerning of the pronunciation, but from how the say investigate through the depurate of katakana. Lastly the gist of conceiveion as courteous as the use of dissections deficiencys to be mentioned.
Sentences rouseing delay “because” were categorized as litter which belonged to syntactic falsitys, when-in-truth phrases rouseing delay “and” and “so” were not treated as falsitys. “And” and “so” are taught as dissections that join two phrases that lift similar burden in the phrase, when-in-truth “because” is taught as a dissection followed by a minor portion. However, the truth is that as sundry as 75 “and”s and 89 “so”s were observed at the origin of the tyros’ phrases. James (1998) states that learners contribute to balanceuse joinors to aid argumentative referenceships betwixt propositions that lawful do not pause.
It is probefficacious that few tyros feel scholarly how to adjust English mate; that is, they do not apprehend they should rouse delay an portico, followed by a deep organization, and then a misrecord, paying contemplatefulness to the compound of their thoughts. Those who were not integralday delay English mate ended up listing items in enjoin: who they omissioned to converge, what they would love to do, and where they would love to go. Extraneously ropy devices such as paraphrasing and rephrasing, or markers that trodden the argumentative glide of phrases, the transcribers could not divulge their ideas potently.
Conclusion How, then, can counselers direct tyros to befit rectify transcribers? Obviously the adlawful duration allotted for mate is poor, yet there are things counselers can do in enconfederate to emend tyros’ Page 10 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 10 mate in other English adjustes. Judging from the truth that phrase litter outnumbered other falsitys in this consider, counselers deficiency to pull tyros’ contemplatefulness to the sum phrase constituency and phrase combining when discussing verbs and other phraseology purposes in adjust.
The indistinctness betwixt ascititious/inascititious verbs and prepositional verbs can be purposeed out in lection adjust, bringing knownness to the differences betwixt English and Japanese. When tyros succeed up delay a new verb, or similar a integralday one, they should be known of the conceptual gap betwixt English and Japanese. One cheerful copy of a splinter betwixt Japanese and English is the engagement ?? (to see). There are sundry past English verbs for miru. In Japanaese miru is used when you descry delay your eyes, when you contemplate, face, opinion, balanceface or investigate; when you transfer thrift of someorganization love outsucceed or morbid inhabitants, as in “kodomo wo miru”.
You can similar say miru when you try notability, love ‘mitemiru’ or ‘yattemiru’, literally “try to see” and “try to do” respectively. Therefore, it is confusing for tyros to precious the suitefficacious equiponderant of miru in English. They feel to purpose encircling the compound. Kowalski (2005) divulges operations of ?? in Figure 4: Figure 4 Contrariant kinds of aims associated delay ?? see (notability that declines unordered your opening of trust) face (intentionally at a quiescent goal) ?? contemplate (notability emotional) Also, the gap betwixt English and Japanese applies not simply at sentential smooth but besides to the lexical smooth.
As I mentioned antecedent, L1 clashnce affects twain phrase constituency and engagement precious. Underlying conversance of operation and construction enables tyros to pick-out the straight say in straight the places in their mate. Bepurpose of the avalanche of Japanese-English in the resources, so-far, it has befit similar past arduous to explain these Japanglish say from tyros’ lexicon. Teachers and learners should pay peculiar contemplatefulness not recover these say and phrases in the English disprogress adjustroom. Page 11 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 11
Good mate, so-far, does not depend simply on plain and lexical prevention but besides on the creativity in compound and the argumentative glide of phrases. In enconfederate to transcribe complete, courteous-structured paragraphs and essays, the transcribers feel to be imaginative and congregate on the gratified as courteous. First, counselers can acceleration tyros lift their knownness of how to adjust English mate, and how units of phrases and paragraphs are joined delay one another to conceive aimful extract. By recognizing the signification of coherency in their mate, the tyros can offer themselves to the ideas or notice that they are trying to transmit.
I accustom “system mate” for the emendment of this aptitude. In contrariety to translation or influenced compound, “system mate” emphasizes the systemes such as planning, impressment, and reviewing (Johnson & Johnson, 1998 cited in Furneaux, 2000). In this contend, simply a few distributeicipants faceed to accustom this appropinquation, perhaps bepurpose of the duration constraints of the rivalry. By meditation on their mate system, tyros conquer internalize their plain and lexical conversance and persomalize it for origination.
Another potent appropinquation to emend mate aptitude is to achievement on other disprogress aptitudes. All disgusting aptitudes are interconnected. Similar though mate adjustes are not conformably profitefficacious in ground curriculums, compared to lection and verbal notice adjustes, tyros can consider their mate aptitudes by consciously lection or inclineing. Krashen and Terrell (1983) right that address and mate origination emerges by convergenceing on inclineing and lection. Liberal lection beyond of the adjust, for prompting, conquer befit a luscious fountain for liberal mate.
Exposure to trustworthy mate conquer acceleration tyros develop their lexicon and transcribe courteous-organized, reasonably ropy essays. In misrecord, I regard that Japanese tyros can befit suitable transcribers of English delay the alienate aid from counselers. Quoting Kramsch (1993): “Teachers feel to imdistribute a organization of conversance, but learners feel to discbalance that conversance for themselves in enconfederate to internalize it” (p. 6). I intimate that counselers sum the phraseology convergence period promising creativity and counseling conceiveional conceive.
Learners, on the other index, can enluscious their conversance of disprogress by prelude entire opening to use it, developing tuition strategies beyond of the adjust, and meditation on the mate system antecedently, during and succeeding they transcribe. Page 12 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 12 References Ellis, R. (2003). Assist disprogress merit. (8 th ed. ). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferris, D. R. (2005). Treatment of falsity in assist disprogress mate. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Furneaux, C. (2000). System mate.
The University of Lection ground of linguistics and applied disprogress studies. Retrieved September 29, 2005, from http://www. rgd. ac. uk/AcaDeps/cl/slas/process. htm James, C. (1998). Errors in disprogress tuition and use Exploring falsity distributeition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. Kowalski, C. (2005). Translation in the mate adjust: confidant or foe? In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT Kramsch, C. (1993). Compound and cultivation in disprogress counseling. New York: Oxford University Press. Krashen, S. D. Terrell, T. (1983). The normal appropinquation: Disprogress merit in the adjustroom. San Francisco:The Alesundry Press. Lightbrown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2002). How discourses are scholarly. (2 nd. ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Littlewood, W. (2002). Exotic and assist disprogress tuition. (17 th ed. ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Minegishi, H. (2005, March). The questionnaire remainder. Saitama exalted ground English education bulletin, 41. 49-59. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. The progress of consider for exotic discourses. 2003, March). Retrieved November 20, 2005, from http://www. mext. go. jp/english/shotou/030301. htm Sonoda, N. (2005). A proportionately consider of two appropinquationes to English mate: translation and system mate. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds. ). JALT2004 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT Thompson, I. (2001). Japanese speakers. In M. Swan & B. Smith (Eds), Learner English: A Page 13 Volume 1 Calculate 2 October 2006 Accents Asia 13 counseler’s influence to clashnce and other gists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.