Evaluating The Health Impact Of Common Wealth Games 2014 Hosted By Glasgow

Stakeholders and their Responsibilities


1. Identify the key stakeholders of the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow and briefly outline their motivations and roles. Define a stakeholder, list all the stakeholders and choose about three to four to further talk about them and their roles.

2. Critically evaluate the positive and negative impacts the Commonwealth Games have had on Glasgow and how they are being measured. (Explaining outcomes using examples and explaining economic, social, environmental and physical challenges).

3. What lessons can be learnt from Glasgow for other commonwealth countries who are considering bidding for the Games in future years? 

It has been indicated by evidence that no previous country as a host has shown a positive impact of health sustainability resulting from a main sports event. Holding this event was not enough for making sure that health will be improvised. A legacy plan needed to be established even before the process of planning (Potter 1998). An assessment from health impact was done in the year 2008 which was followed by a successful big from Glasgow for hosting the common wealth games in the year 2014 and suggestions were made for the important stakeholders as partners for considering the plan to implement and obtain a positive influence that can help in mitigating the potential negative influence of the event. Glasgow center for health consideration of population, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde along with the council of Glasgow city commissioned the progressive and Dudleston Harkins Research Society Ltd for assessing HIA effectiveness in influencing the sports events legacy (Lee et al 2005). This also helped in appropriately understanding the way in which HIAs generally are used as effective techniques for promoting health.

The general aim of this essay lies in evaluating the sports event hosted by Glasgow 2014 in terms of important stakeholders for the event with their main responsibility and role in the project, evaluating the beneficial and disadvantageous influences of the Games on the city of Glasgow and the way in which they can be measured economically, socially, environmentally and physically along with evaluating the consequence of the project to understand its impact for other countries bidding to host for common wealth games in the future (Glasgow 2014). The scope of this essay lies in analyzing environmental emissions (both direct and indirect either after or before), advantages and disadvantages of hosting such as event, how the impact can be measured along with the Type of Model used by Glasgow and other models that other countries can choose from.

1. The Common Wealth Games, 2014, hosted by Glasgow was supported by various members such as the Scottish Government and the committee that helped in organizing the event.

Definition of Stakeholders: As per the definition provided by business dictionary.com, Stakeholders are those individuals or parties who have a concern towards an organization and are part of the organization. These stakeholders do not have equal position in the company but their participation to the functions and operations of a company helps the company to grow profits. These stakeholders have a share in the profit of a company and are also responsible to share the company’s loss.

  • NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde
  • Glasgow center for Population health
  • Glasgow University medical research council
  • Population Health Glasgow centre
  • NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde,
  • Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
  • Scottish Health Impact Network of assessment
  • Glasgow Centre for International Futures Forum
  • Social Care Executive Members

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hosting the Games

The assessment of Health Impact of the Sports event was done by the council of Glasgow city, Population Health Glasgow center, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit.

Scoping Event was supported by Scottish Health Impact Network of assessment, Glasgow Centre for International Futures Forum (Andrew Lyon), Social Care Executive Member (Councilor Archie Graham), substance (Adam Brown) and ECOTEC (Clare Johnson).

Community engagement was supported by stakeholders namely, Scottish Center for community development, Coordinators from Glasgow community planning partnership engagement network, Council of students from Glasgow and several individual and community members who volunteered in the event.

Feedback of the event was supported and given by Archie Graham (Social care and Commonwealth games Executive Member, Council of Glasgow city (2014 team) and coordinators from partnership engagement (Fidell et al 2000).

Steering group multiagency helped in guiding the work were Glasgow Culture and Sport center, Greater Glasgow NHS, City council and development and regeneration services of Glasgow.

The following are the 3 important motivations for all the stakeholders which came from various concerns that the city of Glasgow in terms of its health position was facing.

1. The first concern was the weak position of health quality in the city in comparison to other Scotland cities and well known areas of UK. Mortality of infants has also reduced in the city since the past 3 decades (Hallenback 2009).

2. Another concern was the problems such as smoking levels being relatively high, levels of obesity, levels of physical activity being less and alcohol consumption along with illicit drug usage in the city being high. Such health behavior trends have been known to have an adverse impact on the diseases in future and the levels of mortality. All the stakeholders along with their roles were highly motivated to bring the health quality of Glasgow at a common high individually and collectively (Hensher DABA 2001).

3. Furthermore, the stakeholders had complete knowledge of the observation that HIA applies a qualitative and quantitative proof inclusive of perceptions from stakeholders and their experience in order to develop options that can enhance the positive influence and negate completely the negative influence.

Social benefit: The main areas of potential influence were identified from the event’s scope which especially remained in enhancing employment opportunities and employment ability.

Economic benefit: This would in turn positively influence the image of Glasgow city in terms of regenerating the city, pride of civic apprehension, people’s health and their well-being, developing infrastructure, enhancing environment and various themes to cross cut such as engaging community, inequalities being tackled and cohesion of community (Giuliano 2008). Environmental Benefits: However, prior to the event, positive evidences were gathered in order to analyze the positive influence of the Games to be true or false.

Evidence 1: Survey from household- This survey explicitly resulted in stating that Glasgow citizens completely believed in this event to have a positive influence on the people at a larger scale such as the belief of people on the event to bring healthy impact for them and their families.

Economic, Social, Environmental, and Physical Impact of Hosting the Games

Evidence 2: Reviewing Systematically- This review helped in understanding the influence of main multiple events on sports from the year 1978 to the year 2008 over health determinants. The findings reported to the steering group of HIA that the evident quality was low but there were identified gaps when examining the consequences (Gardiner 2008). However the positive impact of the review can be exclaimed from economic diversity of the city with its image enhancement.

From this perspective it can be stated that an established process such as an HIA for professionals in public health domain help in informing the makers of policy with provided evidences. This is especially significant for intervention in the society not specifically aimed at generation of effective health.

Economic and Social Influence: Even after a wide range of potential positive impacts, there unfortunately is also lacking evidence for many of the needed influences. There is especially inadequate proof for impact attribution to such events instead of several other trends.

Environmental Influence: From this perspective, even after the abundant data present over prior multi events of sports, academic research robust around such games legacy is rare. Such a large event being hosted can cause a large footprint environmentally with regard to creation of waste, needed travelling and excess consumption of food and drinks.

Financial Influence: More capital can be wasted if consideration is not given to infrastructure development taking place with regard to long term benefits of the construction. Initiatives of regeneration have a tendency to be positive along with being negative. Forceful eviction and forceful relocation are some similar negative impacts of such a scenario (Gardiner 2006).

Political Influence: Lacking coordination present between the sector of public and private. More focus on internal structure of the city with lacking wider areas integration. Constructing buildings permanently that were very large for use every-day

Measuring impact is needed for determining the real impact and to under if the process of HIA has influenced the process of decision making. It is evident that the event will critically impact health of people by influencing the economic ability, civic pride, decision making engagement, new infrastructure provision and cultural event participation promotion (Kemp 2012). However, it was challenging to deliver precise estimation of these influences because from similar intervention, there is no qualitative evidence present. Using the Community Engagement National standards and a tool named as VOiCE (Visioning outcome in community engagement) were applied alongside the Development Center for Scottish Community.

The main strength of the Common wealth Games remained in program planning, use of several methods, working collaboratively, share data and feedback being provided. The final score of the evaluation resulted in 5 out of 6 indicating an excellent performance with main strengths remaining related to the Standards of Nation along with stated outcomes achievement. This was available proved by the following Examples:

Example: Safer Routes for Travelling Actively was evident as an essential outcome of the HIA. Infrastructure of transport improved in terms of access, pollution issues and standards of safety. This was the result of emerging infrastructure requirement, reviews conducted systematically and from the consultation phase of stakeholders.

Assessing the Impact of the Project for Other Countries Bidding to Host the Games in the Future

Social and Economic: Improving the population health especially to prevent obesity is challenging for Scotland because it already is ranked the second amongst obesity level developed nations along with no improvements being shown. Example: Before the Olympic games of Sydney the obesity levels increased and also after the games. There has been no guarantee that a main event of sports will result in positive influence being gained socially and economically for the nation hosting the event. Furthermore, it is also argued that the benefits for the host nation are often lost (Lee et al 2007). There is no influence that will take place automatically on activities in the society which are non-sport based. Other challenges are inclusive of delivery alignment and legacy alignment, expectations being unmanageable, caution and ambition being mix reasonably, developments are linked and HIA is not enough for planning the legacy especially for engagement of community.

Environmental: During the time of construction, noise pollution will be the main challenge as it can lead to stress for other people. Stocks of housing do not yield long term sustainability and the need to build green houses will require further planning. Pollution due to traffic congestion is another significant challenge (Waitt 2001).

Physical: According to the Poll results from YouGov, more than 70 percent population still will not be motivated for doing more exercises even when life of people depends on the same. Any improvement in health, levels of activity of lifestyle have been shown by no other nations hosting common wealth games according to Chief Medical Officer, London 2012 (Owen 2002). Very less information is present of the influence of this event on development of sport in the local area, regions and at the level of nation. Furthermore, health benefits related to games are not known yet.

3. What went well with Glasgow was the simplicity offered to its citizens through hosting a sports event at an international level. Also, the positive impact was simple but results in complicated outcomes that need to be addressed as per the recommendations.

Communities involved in making decisions on facilities establishment and up gradation to ensure that the requirements in the local environment are met. Every facility was ensured to have a process in place for the involved communities in alignment with making decisions with the Community Engagement National Standards (Friedman et al 2010). More requirement for facilities helped in motivating the enhancement in physical activities.

However the conduction of HIA was the main efforts made by Glasgow inclusive of themes mapping for Framework of Legacy revealing certain essential lessons learnt with regard to HIAs in future. The main challenge related to this HIA and the associated framework of legacy was to ensure main partners are taking up the role and responsibility as per the suggestions. Outlined stakeholders also faced issues in making sure that the steps are taken under specific actions with the National Standards in order to make sure that the process is properly monitored (O’Brien 2009). It was also suggested as such there needs to be a main group that sits above every organization involved in the process in order to side by side govern the assessment process and eventual recommend the way in which monitoring can be done of the implementation process fruitfully. Glasgow while hosting the event made sure that all the involved members understood this HIA in the appropriate manner and were aware that the process is an approach to collect comprehensive work pieces that involved various stages such as reviewing literature and consulting the community.

Evidence from Surveys and Reviews

Environment emissions with regard to the legacy of environment for the Games in 2014 aiming to not only be an exemplar but also environmental sustainability through natural resources efficient usage, low-carbon promotion and several technologies preferred environment (Gardiner 2006). There were various particular measure of environment for the Games 2014 inclusive of zones with lower emission around the venues of 2014, venues free from car, vehicles with higher technologies and renewable energy usage. Policy consideration for sustainability in construction was essential to design buildings at a lower use of energy. Various potential impacts of negative nature to the local environment are inclusive of noise pollution, pollution from dust and vibrating due to activities of construction. The associated regeneration with the games needs to be an example that helps in promotion of urban design sustainability encouraging travel and physical activity.

Therefore, knowledge refreshment amongst stakeholders or introduction of HIA as a concept or model along with its influence over policy to newly recruited staff can help in making sure that the HIA has an advanced impact and it also removes the HIA perception not being applicable still.

The type of Model used by Glasgow, 2014 while hosting the common wealth games was Health Impact assessment model which is the systematic process to identify the differential proposed plans and projects health and wellbeing influence (Gardiner 2006). This took place in democracy, equity, sustainability and ethical usage for framework of evidences. This tool was used to positively influence the decision making process. Understanding the properly complicated and political environment that surrounds the HIA development and implementation is important for making sure that the recommended change has been implemented. This illustrated that HIA is significant to conduct HIA that can match along with map the current structure of policy.


This essay has been based on various factors considered when Glasgow 2014 hosted the common wealth Games. These factors were related to social, environmental, political and economic along with physical challenges that the event had to face. In addition, more focus in this essay has been given to the way in which the program was evaluated and what was presented in the outcome. The model of HIA has been taken evidently in order to attain the resulting consequence in the health quality domain (Gardiner 2006). Additionally, the HIA process was comprehensive with thoroughness in nature and the process helped in making use of current networks and present findings in concise manner, resonated manner and in accordance to the solutions from several evaluations and consultations community. From the legacy frameworks outlined themes, the organizations and nations in the future will be successful in hosting common wealth games for health benefits through recommended frameworks (Gardiner 2006). However, as the population is growing rapidly it becomes important to review and learn from such events in order to make sure that there are beneficial requirements of health obtained for every population group through hosting such sports events.


1. Glasgow 2014, 2014, Delivering a lasting legacy for Scotland: analysis of consultation responses, Scottish Government (Available at https://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/253682/0075174.pdf.)

2. Lee, BK., Jun, NY., Lee, HK., 2005, Analysis of impacts on urban air quality by restricting the operation of passenger vehicles during Asian Game events in Busan, Korea. Atmospheric Environment, 39, pp 2323-2338.

3. Potter, CSJ., 1998, Assessing the impacts of transportation on ambient air quality: the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Washington, D.C, Transportation Research Board

4. Fidell, S., Pearsons, K., Tabachnick, BG., Howe, R., 2000, Effects on sleep disturbance of changes in aircraft noise near three airports. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107: 2535-47.

5. Hallenbeck, ME., 2009, Traffic impacts during the Goodwill Games : final report, Research Project GC8719, Task 29, Goodwill Games Traffic Impacts. [Olympia, Wash.?]: Washington State Dept. of Transportation, Planning, Research and Public Transportation Division, in cooperation with the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration

6. Hensher DABA, 2001, Going for gold at the Sydney Olympics: how did transport perform? [Sydney, N.S.W.]: Institute of Transport Studies, Australian Key Centre in Transport Management, the University of Sydney and Monash University

7. Giuliano, G., 2006, Changes in travel demand characteristics during the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. Irvine, Calif.: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California

8. Gardiner, S., 2008, Creating sustainable mega event impacts: networking and relationship development through pre-event training. Sport Management Review, 9:25-47.9.Kemp, S., 2012, The Hidden Workforce: Volunteers’ Learning in the Olympics. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26, pp 109-116.

9. Kemp, S., 2012, The Hidden Workforce: Volunteers’ Learning in the Olympics. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26, pp 109-116.

10. Friedman, MS., Powell, KE., Hutwagner, L., Graham, LM., Teague, WG., 2010, Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 285:897-905.

11. Lee, JT., Son, JY., Cho, YS., 2007, Benefits of mitigated ambient air quality due to transportation control on childhood asthma hospitalization during the 2002 summer Asian games in Busan, Korea. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 57, 968-73.

12. Waitt, G., 2001, The Olympic spirit and civic boosterism: the Sydney 2000 Olympics. Tourism geographies, 3, pp 249-278.

13. Owen, K., 2002, The Sydney 2000 Olympics and urban entrepreneurialism: local variations in urban governance. Australian geographical studies, 40, pp 323-36.
14. O’ Brien, DJ., 2009, Strategic business leveraging of a mega sport event: the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games experience. Gold Coast, Qld.: CRC for Sustainable Tourism

15 Gardiner, S., 2006, Creating sustainable mega event impacts: networking and relationship development through pre-event training. Sport Management Review, 9:25-47.

16. Searle, G., 2007, Uncertain legacy: Sydney’s Olympic stadiums. European Planning Studies, 10, 845-60

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