Principles Of Networking Standards And Protocol For An AI Company

Network Standards

This report analyses the principles of networking standards and protocol in context to an AI company which needs to set up a new office in a new production area. The company has given proper blueprint of the network area along with the requirements. The basic reference models and layered architecture is discussed in accordance to the requirements to install a good network. The company wants a network system which can operate even in a bandwidth of 1Gbps.

A brief scaling of the requirements is done and a budget is proposed by the company keeping in mind that the formed network is effective. A separate manufacturing floor is needed which accumulate the network system so that the system remains authenticate and the cables remain protected.

One of the main objectives of the network standards is to make sure that the interoperability between products made by different manufacturers is maintained. Many standards forms the basis of the networking for example, OSI , IEEE, ITU-T and ANSI. These standards equip a gateway between protocols. By taking the example of OSI model of ISO the way how standards establish interoperability is explained.


International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines the functions of any network specifications. These standards manages the protocols of any product which are also established by any network [1].

OSI model comprises of seven layers which performs extensive actions. The AI Company has made transmission rules to maintain the interoperability.

This layer is responsible for communication of bits. The objective of this layer is that for transmission of bits a particular function is followed in the network [2].

The function of data link layer is to provide authentication of transfer of data in a specified connection. Hence, data confidentiality is maintained. 

This layer is responsible for independent routing and switching of data. This layer ensures interoperability by routing over the entire network. Scalability over the network is also provided.

This layer provides error correction to the data and then transports it over the network and is responsible for maintaining functionality [3].

Just like network layer this layer also provides interoperability of scalability. Session layer takes care of the formation of the connection starting from how the connection has to be established till the termination of the connection.

This layer is responsible for the presentation of the data i.e. which data is compatible for which form representation. As a result, it maintains the interoperability of requirements.

Physical layer

The type of communication between the networks is determined in this layer. Hence, it provides flexibility.

The various layers of the OSI model together provide interoperability between products made by different manufacturers [4].

The network model standards which are mostly used in a network are:

  1. TCP/IP protocol is a protocol of the transport layer and hence is responsible for transportation of data over a connection [3].
  2. It has four layers named as: Application, Host-to-Host, Internet and Network Access.
  3. This protocol was developed after the DoD model and have features similar to DoD.
  4. It can be implemented on connectionless networks only.
  5. It follows left-to-right approach.
  6. This model does not have isolated presentation layer and session layer.
  7. The rules are defined and it’s impossible to make any changes.
  8. There is no acknowledgement that the packet is delivered or not [4]. 
  1. OSI is a network standard defined by the International Standards Organizations and is used in computer systems.
  2. It has seven layers named as: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Application and Presentation layer.
  3. It can be implemented on connectionless as well as connection-oriented networks.
  4. This model follows top-to-bottom approach.
  5. There are different presentation and session layer.
  6. New changes can be made easily in this model as the network standards keeps on changing.
  7. An acknowledgement of packet delivery is always provided.
  8. This model acts as a reference model for all other networks [5].

In the early 1970s, Department of Defence model was developed by the defence systems. This model consists of four layers,

  1. Network Access Layer
  2. Internet Layer
  3. Host-to-Host Layer
  4. Process Layer

Later this model was changed into TCP/IP which was its advanced version.


Figure 1:TCP/IP, DoD and OSI model


Figure 2: Layers of TCP/IP, DoD, OSI model


Figure 3: Protocols

The different types of media cables which are used in networking are: Fibre-Optic cables, Twisted-Pair cable, Coaxial cables and wireless communication.

The main advantage of using fibre-optic cables is that for transmission of data these cables use light in spite of electricity and hence are highly authenticated. These cables are coated with plastic; this coating helps in isolating the communication from the external interferences. There are basically two kinds of fibre-optic cables called as Single mode and Multi-mode cables. The frequency ranges of these cables ranges from 100Mbps to 100Gbps.They are very expensive. Fibre-optic cables covers a distance of 10kms [6]. 

These cables are in a shape of twisted pairs and hence act as an obstacle for noise. This characteristic also provides a self-shielding to the wires of these cables. When compared to other cables these cables forms a circuit with the wires. There are two kinds of twisted-pair cables called as Shielded twisted pair and Unshielded twisted pair cables. The bandwidths of twisted pair cables are small and they are 100m in length. The frequency ranges of these cables ranges from 10Mbps to 1000Mbps [8].

These cables are made up of solid-copper substance and are expensive. They are 500m in length. The frequency ranges of these cables ranges from 10Mbpe to 100 Mbps and hence they are used for high-frequency transmission. There are two kinds of coaxial cables called as 75 Ohm and 50 Ohm coaxial cables. They have anti-jamming capabilities and so are expensive.

This type of communication does not have any wires and hence they are cheap. It makes use of radio frequency and infrared frequency. The transmission rates of these cables are from 9kbps to 54 Mbps. These are many applications of these cables like cell phones, Wi-Fi, etc. Apart from this, the frequency ranges of these cables ranges from 3kHz to 300 GHz [7].

Data Link layer

By the above discussion, it can be concluded that the company should use fibre-optic cables for installing its network. These cables are used for long distance. Although they are expensive and might exceed the company’s budget but they are beneficial in long run. Because of the fact they the bandwidth range of these cables is from 100Mbps to 100Gbps along with this they are highly secure.

In synchronous connection channel the sender as well as the receiver uses a same clock signal. For a communication to get completed, both sender and receiver have to be a part of the connection. The transmission of data is in form of sequence of bits and hence this transmission is very fast. The data is send and received at both the ends therefore a continuous transfer of data takes place. The sender and the receiver cannot leave the connection until the whole process gets complete. Phone calls use this type of communication channel [10]. 

In asynchronous connection channels the sender and the receiver do not use a same clock signal therefore they can leave the channel whenever they wish to and do not have to wait. The transmission of data is in form of single character of data therefore the data rate is very slow. The sender sends the data on the channel and then the receiver uses this so at a type only one can send and receive the data. The channel remains booked until and unless the receivers do not take the data of the channel. The connection channel keeps the data for further use. Microcomputers use this type of connection channels [9].

The company would use the synchronous connection channel as the transmission of data is fast and at a particular time a huge amount of data is transferred. The clock rate at which the transmission take place is fixed. Hence, a bidirectional transmission takes place.

As given, the length of data records is 1000bytes and the transmission time is 0.25 seconds.


Transmission line speed of synchronous connection= Length of data record/Transmission time       



And hence, the transmission line speed supported by this synchronous connection will be 4000bytes/second.


This report concludes that various network standards help to assure interoperability between products made by different manufacturers. A comparison of the three models: OSI, DoD and the TCP/IP is done. It was analysed that the fibre optic cable will be used to wire the network because it is beneficial for a long term. And to implement an application which will transfer data records to a backup site in a nearby suburb, synchronous connection will be more efficient. As it transmit data at a fast speed and at a fixed clock rate. 


[1] K. Cannon, K. Caudle and A. Chiarella, CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking Fundamentals. USA: Cengage Learning, 2008.

[2] M. Solomon, D. Kim and J. Carrell, Fundamentals of Communications and Networking. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2014.

[3] T. Dean, Network+ guide to networks. Boston, Mass.: Course Technology/Cengage Learning, 2013. 

[4] J. Stewart, M. Chapple and D. Gibson, CISSP. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

[5] White, Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User’s Approach, 8th ed. USA: Cengage Learning, 2015.

[6] A. Blank, TCP/IP Foundations. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

[7] W. Odom, CCENT/CCNA ICND1 640-822 Official Cert Guide. USA: Cisco Press, 2011.

[8]T. Anttalainen and V. Jaaskelainen, Introduction to Communication Networks. London: Artech House, 2014.

[9]  K. Laven, “Down to the Wire”, 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 21- Dec- 2017].

 [10] S. McQuerry, “CCNA Self-Study: Network Media (The Physical Layer)”, 2004. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 21- Dec- 2017].

[11] K. Barker and K. Wallace, CompTIA Network+ N10-006 cert guide. USA: Pearson IT Certification, 2015.

[12] G. Ballou, Handbook for Sound Engineers. London: Taylor and Francis, 201

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