The Effects Of Pricing On Apple’s Brand Equity: A Study Of ITunes
Rationale of the Study
The Apple as a brand with its association like i-Tunes was launched internationally as a operating software for the entertainment and media. However, since Apple’s Attractive package and product offerings and value so far there i-Phone, i-Pad or even i-Mac goes is comparatively not attractive anymore because of its association with i-Tunes. Nevertheless, the pricing for a product like media and entertainment that too in the international market had a negative effect upon the brand image causing a tar to its future prospects.
Nevertheless, what perspectives would be used and conclusion of logical reasoning would need research and development. Hence the results about the perception about the effects of overt price has done to Apple in international context would be studied. The literature review would focus upon Brand and various associations of brands with pricing objectives is studied. The Questions pertinent to the study has been devised those would be directed to the i-tune users across the globe to have a primary data to know about their perspective. If required be for the subject’s study the Qualitative questions would be used. The second part would brief it in full.
Rationale of the Study.
Apple and iTunes.
Low Cost Strategy Planning.
Everyday low price.
Power of Pricing.
The brand and its pricing strategies are directly linked with the way the consumer’s feel about the brand. Therefore the equity of a brand is dependent on the ways that the brand portraits itself in terms of pricing that in turn have a huge effect upon segmentation. Thus pricing is an important source of differentiation as the consumers relays the brands identity with the way the brands price for itself. The alignments would deal with the pricing tendencies for iTunes and the brand Apple itself. The brand associates with a segment when the price I displayed and when it comes to music, it’s free in the net age. However, the Apple’s policy of differentiation and its backlash on the equity itself would be critically analyzed and evaluated to have an informed conclusion.
Brand equity is the value to the business, derived solely from the perception customers have about the company and the worth of your products and services. In this, pricing is a norm that generally focuses upon a multitude of subjects in the Brand mix like price, persona, and promotional ingredients. However, for Apple the feature of differentiation that too in an International was build upon i-Tunes for its futuristic business of mass-storage in entertainment. Therefore, if the policy had succeeded or had a negative effect upon the brand image is been researched. Therefore, the rationale is to study if brand and its pricing strategies do have any effect upon brand image and thus upon its Business equity, to study what was Apple’s plan and strategy for i-Tunes and to study the effects of the pricing upon Apple’s gross Brand equity
On the subject, the latest comes from Adam Sherwin in The Independent of UK on 14th of this November, 2014 News desk that they have calculated the decline in U2 profits being tarnished too. This was kind of mutual brand withdrawal for both the Bono’s U2 and Apple with the iPhone Six launch. Further, the news reports that U2 could only sell 6700 of its previous album in back catalogues, with this failure altogether. However, the Apple’s choice was to launch i-Tunes as a competent Apple sets like iPhone, iMac, iPad devices. However, the offer was to download songs instead of adding it. Nevertheless, iRadio was so big a price failure in terms of delivery along with tunes that the speculation is iPhone six launches may be the awaited disaster for Apple and the brand as a whole.
Apple and iTunes
The days of media and entertainment has gone a bit widened in terms of storage and the buffering services like those of You-tube, or Socio. Therefore, nobody would be interested to invest 10 pounds of money whom they have never heard of. Nevertheless, the offerings were such that those were even given a discount pricing offer substitute to download 500 tunes but those available there are probably of not the taste for all, because music is diverse and taste differs and thus limited 500 may have features those are not liked by all. The view of consumers would be taken into consideration from different media sources as the online feedback processes may be biased due to international locations. Nevertheless, the idea of making i-tunes a product mandatory for such a big storage device was the basic problem. However, the effects of it on the brand and its sales have become the research issue and thereby the literature review as follows would identify and analyze how brand and the pricing are related and how do they have prices, what are the overture had it been to brand equity.
Apple is a renowned brand from US based Computer manufacturer who are also famous their offerings in hardware supporting large memory in small space thus creating entertainment support and playing device and Operating software (OS). Innovations like i-Phone Technology making Apps a regular name to any techs today. Followed by these innovations the operating systems in these device however failed to generate any big success since its multi natural launch. But actually the strategy to make music payable or movies and books no funded like activity has become a regular activity. Form the consumer’s perspective for i-tunes subscriber in any Apple device has the inclination towards storing large amount of music in their device that has those multimedia offers like music playing, video outputs and also radio connectivity playing a range of US and Europe based radio channels (Sherwin, 2014).
However, for an International launch the device seemed not to have attracted any substantial market out of US, Canada, UK and France. The reasons are may be in the build and the Operating Software Concept itself. The compatibility with other OS is poor when it comes to Apple. Therefore the sinks between two Apple devices are having complained in loading and sinking music between 2 i-Tune devices. Nevertheless, the physical infrastructures of different nations that have limited connectivity for mobile devices other than Wi-Fi connectivity are feeling that the i-Radio add-ons in i-Tunes have no use. Again, when one can taste music for free, why a consumer would buy a new launch music video with a price was not understood by the global i-Tune subscriber. Even in US markets, iTunes took off with a boom but that was a phase when the product was tested. The market infrastructure and offerings are not compatible at all places in the international markets. In launch I-Tune, Apple sought the consumers to buy music and sync them in their devices. However, the buying affinity (In this Case Music) is low in international markets along with the devices inability to competently sync all multimedia items in one device due to different different platforms of media playing OS those don’t gets on with Apple. Again the I-Tunes cost is the major factor as the markets that the brand ventured is not keen to invest money upon a product like i-Tunes release before they have actually tasted the product. Nevertheless, the source of music is free and vast to choose from. Apple did not support the idea when at US market (Sanchez, 2014).
The use of symbols, such as a name, logo, characters and slogans in promotional efforts, those helps build brand equity. Any pricing strategy also contributes to the perceptions customers have about the Brands offerings. Pricing is just as important to brand equity as other differentiators, because it is a source of meaning and identity. A solid pricing strategy can have a positive effect on brand equity, while a poor strategy can do the opposite. The various types of pricing strategies include premium pricing, discounted or competitive pricing, cost-based pricing, introductory or penetration pricing, everyday low pricing and bundle or bulk pricing. Finding the right pricing strategy is vitally important for the brand equity of a business. Nevertheless, the price is directly linked with product offerings, thus if a brand has less to offer the prices would be low as to keep the competitive edge, like most of the Retail brands and products pricing competition that we see for different grocery products (Cendrowski, 2012). Further, the more the price the more sensitive is a consumer about the offerings of the product.
The equity for a few also is somewhat price based at cases where the Brand offerings are supposed to be suggested by the price of it. One example is like Rolex Watches. Useable goods with value offerings but the pricing is set in a manner that creates its difference with others with the price differential that would suggest some goods of value like high grade steel, high valued Gold, platinum or Silver usage. Nevertheless, it also suggests the target audience along with Strategic marketing plans.
The offerings in substance and benefits on the products use perceived by the consumer are the Value Proposition for the product (Muller, 2013). Value proposition is generally described as the mixture of benefits that a business offer through their product or service solution to targeted customers. However, from a customer point of view, the value equation is simpler. Customers compare the relationship between a product’s price and the perception of worth they take from its use or the experience they get from it. A price that is too high negatively impacts the value proposition, while a price below what could get reduces the profit margins. However, Hulshof (2014) suggests that Value proposition is dependent upon the way the consumer has developed the pace and length of loyalty towards a brand, or whensoever’s choosing a brand.
The product mix is made out of components like product size, weight, offerings, price like factors. Differentiation means to develop and communicate something bigger, better or distinct about product offering. If the offerings are not presenting something distinct to the marketplace, then the business rely solely on arbitrary decision-making on the part of consumers. Developing a distinct and desired benefit mix and clearly telling market segments about it helps to drive customers to a business or products. Organic food makers or resellers pin their differentiation on the natural, healthy advantages their products provide and retailers may go for Price differentiation or Discounts and offers to let the consumers perceive that they are getting more for less.
Along with differentiation, the other key component of brand positioning is the target market to which business positions. Cendrowski (2012) argues that Business may offer an excellent, distinct benefit, but if it doesn’t present the same to the right market segment, it doesn’t really matter and the offerings may fail. For the Brands like Tesco it’s a larger Audience without much of Socio-Eco class segment than other Brands depending upon the product they sell. Again, location, age group of audience, income, taste, culture, belief like elements those comes as determinant in Market segmentation, when a brand chooses to offer and develop their class of audience. Offering the lowest price to a highly affluent market segment doesn’t make much sense, for instance, because customers with money typically look for superior product benefits or excellent service. However, identifying customers based on shared demographic, geographic, and behavioral or lifestyle qualities are taken in promotion too as considerations. Thus focusing business efforts on them improves a business’s potential to have better position on brand equity to its similar in a market.
The low cost strategic planning is the differentiation or strategic values. Ge (2010) suggests that pricing can be differential (Specialty and uniqueness) or strategic (as in Commodity pricing-especially in the retail Industry). However, the market place gets to choose in segment terms which are the business targets. Low the cost of profit the between due to bulk sales of retails can be true. Nevertheless, the strategies those it chooses to give are actually bulk and those kinds of profits are at times not made in price competitiveness-differentiation-creation wise. Therefore, goods or product with high use and those having lesser range of profit due to higher consumption like daily use Breakfast cereals or packed milk like items. The retailers use these products to be in the market for consumers to come in therefore the basic ingredients that attracts one to the market.
The high end pricing are those pricing that is set to create differentiation between other pertinent product having same offerings. This differentiation strategy is generally segment oriented which have a sense of luxuries and added value offerings in the product. Products like Apple i-Phone, A Rolex watch or a car from Ferrari or similar is associated with a unique feature that those prices signify. (Villanueva, 2007) suggests the factor as perceived value is high; the satisfaction is the key, the association and personality signature like items are the high end products.
Value is the element of added property advantage that a consumer feels. This is not a solid objective outcome but a perceived goodness or utility and advantages that keep a product ahead from its competitors. Villanueva (2007) suggests that the value associated with a brand is a very precious item of Brand as if the repute does the brand faces, the trust and faith upon the brand that consumers perceive, gets affected.
A brand extension occurs when leverage brand equity to market a new business or product to a new customer market. A prominent company example was Gap launching GapKids. Leading toilet paper brand Charmin expanded its brand by offering a lower-end option, Charmin Basic, to price-conscious consumers. Brand extensions only work if you have strong brand equity, because you essentially rely on your proven reputation to attract new business.
Businesses usually adopt a strategy of differentiation or price leadership. Differentiation works for companies operating in luxury or niche markets, while price leadership works for discount stores (Shaffer, 2005). The effect of a discount or competition pricing strategy can create an image of second-rate products, which could have a negative effect on the brand’s equity. For example, Tesco would come up with Weekly offers to give added groceries on a certain amount of buy. That’s like what extra that a consumer feels that they gain in the process, in the regular buying habit with Tesco. This alienated some customers, but gained brand equity for the company in other target markets.
This pricing strategy is the official positioning of most grocery store chains. Walmart successfully follows this strategy, which is imitated by stores in other countries. The chain’s approach of profitable and sustainable price differentiation has become a winning strategy and created significant brand equity, positioning the company as a low price, high value retailer. In addition, brands that successfully move into developing markets with a large number of less affluent customers, such as China and India, have their brand equity directly affected by the affordability of their products to the target market.
Pricing at both ends of the strategy spectrum can affect brand equity in different ways. For a low cost high use product of daily need like Salt or packed milk the pricing plays the key differentiator among the brands. However Kotler (2008) suggests Premium pricing is the principle of setting a high price point to reflect the product’s exclusivity and quality. Kittlaus and Clough (2009) argues that, with niche brands, such as sedan class Mercedes Benz or Rolex, the price is an aspect that the customers of the brand association enjoyments. It adds meaning and value to their purchase and sets the product apart from its competition. This makes the pricing strategy an important and integral aspect of the product’s brand equity. If the product doesn’t have any other strong differentiators, however, lower prices are likely to sell better than more expensive ones.
The research questions would try to answer the following:
Do the product like music, movies and books like products of social and moral value associate with pricing?
Did the Apple’s objective in pricing strategy have a direct impact upon its brand image?
How did international launch of i-Tunes impact the Brand image of Apple?
Nevertheless, the objectives would be building upon the rational of the subject that would be linked with the questions that the proposal suggests.
The assignment would build on effective study that had been done by primary research over the i-Tunes subscribers all across the globe in different cities among different age groups. However, the primary data gathered may be further studied for the Qualitative answers if they may require. Nevertheless, the online distribution and study conduction would be done for the assignment. The ways that the brand of Apple has been affected could be understood and the effect of price among the global population about a product like music and entertainment. Therefore the design would be to understand the brand association damage that Apple has faced and what all strategies proved failure in this process would be analyzed.
Kittlaus, H. and Clough, P. (2009) Software product management and pricing. 2nd Ed, Berlin:
Kotler, P. (2008) Marketing Management, 4th Ed, New York: Free Press.
Shaffer, F. (2005) Costing out nursing, 3rd Ed, New York: National League for Nursing.
Villanueva, J. (2007) Customer Equity. 1St. Ed. Hanover: Now Publishers.
Cendrowski, H. (2012) Private equity. 2nd Ed, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley
Ge, D. (2010) “Value pricing in presence of network effects” Journal Of Product & Brand
Management, 11(3), 174-185
Huang, T. (2011) “The Value of Clickstream Tracking: Advance Demand Information, Product
Personalization and Personalized Pricing” SSRN Journal, 23 (2), pp. 12-19
Hulshof, J. (2014) “Sustainable Health Care Systems: The Role of Therapeutic Value and Value
Based Pricing” Value In Health, 17(7), pp. 452- 454
Muller, J. (2013) “Value Based Pricing in the Context of Software Product Line Engineering”
SSRN Journal, 13(1), pp. 12-23
The Second part of the Assignment focus on the research methodology. The tools and techniques those would be used in conducting the research along with the research approached that would be guiding the entire process is discussed. The sample size along with population identification for the specific subject is been done. The various methods used in both Primary and Secondary data collection and analysis along with the various Qualitative and Quantitative research approaches are been evaluated.
The care towards the maintenance of ethics and their practices would be maintained in this project with sufficient details. Nevertheless, the answers and figures those come out of the evaluation and analysis would be further deduced to sync them with the research objectives that would give an answer to the hypothesis with which the research started. Thereby recommendations would be generated for the Apple brand that witch may help them is maintaining the brand image and value.
Table of Contents
Back Ground of the Study. 4
Research Methodology. 6
Data Analysis. 8
Ethics Validity and Reliability. 9
The research design and plans for the research design implementation along with the plans to analyze the answer on a score card the results would be derived. However, the theories and context of the research as discussed in Assignment 1 would be designed to practically evaluate for the case study with the product users and that would be compiled within the subject of research in a graphical and tabular form. Background of the study is suggesting Apple and its association with i-Tunes another significant offering of Apple had have a international launch even very recently. Further, the evaluation of Future benefits and occurrences would be judged and recommendations for a better marketing and offering strategy would be focused upon.
Apple Inc was formed by Late Mr. Steve Jobs in 1977 and has made significant amount original product design and innovation in this short span of time that the brand has been in existence. Apple Inc is a US based multi-billion and multinational tech giant that has a very high brand perception among the US consumers as the Surveys suggests. Nevertheless, the consumer electronic and goods market with its IT focused product offerings have changed the way the market dynamics used to work. I-Cloud, i-Tunes, i-Mac a few offerings that the brand have had and comes assured with its hardware Operating Software base. I-tunes is the Operating Software and Music store for Apple Users in there devices. However, few features don’t work out of US and European borders, even though it’s the third largest Mobile Phone maker, and the second largest Information Technology Company on the globe. Therefore the idea to buy a song and have a taste about a new-comer was not a suitable idea neither the process of storing all media files and playing them with comfortable ease was possible. Therefore, Apple created a Product which had its own IT environment that was a Specific OS based (Apple.com, 2014).
Low Cost Strategy Planning
However, post the launch of Google’s parallel free store and mini store ranges the OS based devices like smart phones and other such smart devices upgraded to a Android OS which was perceived as a more user friendly, naturally flexible and reliable source of platform usage that can be upgraded from time to time with no major hard or software changes. However, the international market welcomed the international Brands like Apple to be open in Markets like China and India along with other significant markets like Japan and Europe. With time the complain in regard to the design incompatibility with its associate environment gadgets like other OS ran Hardware, became more and more prominent. The Radios don’t operate in those parts, the music offered have a price tag to it whereas those markets perceives Music and Media a product those are not associated with price, preferable to say that they don’t consume something that they have no taste about. Therefore, the idea is to judge the effect that the brand of Apple had when it associated with an offering like i-Tunes. The effects had been till what extend would be suitable evaluated in the research, especially in its international launch (Fortt, 2014).
Therefore, the updating problems from one OS to another, compatibility between 2 Apple different generation products are coming to forth in light. However, the apps and gadget usability wise the brand value is still considered to be a prominent Global Tech Gadget brand. The Apple Evangelism was predominantly observed in the UK US markets where the i-Phone 5 and Sic were released. In a publication of Sunday Telegraph from London of 12th Of May, 2014 Guy Kawasaki calls this association with Apple is very personal and intimate. The user assets the brands mix a great composition of their needs and requirements. However, internationally the flavor is not the same. What US and UK did in pre-Android OS age is not the trend since the music is a option of choice and i-Tunes have priced it and have created a Storage barrier too for the users from previously using a different support system, altogether (Bbc.com, 2014).
Therefore the study would be conducting a online survey about the effects that the brand have had in the last 1 year due to its i-Tunes offering in the International Market. Whatever value the brand had generated came mainly from a very US based perspective where the considerations of other cultures were not taken into account. Further, the Gaps in Infrastructure with Apples other System support devices lost the incredible amount of interest that Apple has designed with its i-tunes strategy setting. The same would be evaluated from among the Apple users of all different geopolitical locations with a set of online questioner that would be covered by 10 questions specific to the subject of study with choices to answer from yes and no which determine their product perceptions.
The research methodology is the use of research philosophy and tools to arrive for research objectives with ease and accuracy are to be used for the study. The research is the findings and its analysis of those elements like data, maps and survey reports that gives an output or answer Qualitative or Quantitative in nature to arrive to a specific research objective. The data used in the process can be both Primary and Secondary data those associate with answers given by a set of people and been catalogued to formulate the answers to evaluate the research objectives. The test Questions of 10 numbers would be frames with ratings from 1 to 5 as in Liker’s Scale. Therefore the accumulation of agreeability to disagreeability in terms of the research questions would be analyzed.
Nevertheless, the research process progresses on a pragmatism based upon post-positivism. Ketchen and Bergh (2004) argues that for a research in Qualitative the hypotheses of the approach is build upon the process like data collection that can be formulated to come to a comprehensive conclusion. While the positivist epistemology deals only with observed and measured knowledge, the post-positivist epistemology recognizes that such an approach would result in making many important aspects of psychology irrelevant. Burita (2014) argues that because feelings and perceptions cannot be readily measured. In post-positivist is based on the concept of critical realism, that there is a real world out there independent of our perception of it and that the objective of science is to try and understand it.
The hypothesis is the question in the research consideration like the case goes. However, since the process aims to find out the possible association with various elements, in these pricing effects on the Brand, therefore the research would identify the associate variables those have an effect upon the brand. The sources can be qualitative research through survey questioner among the target audience or from other sources those have already been published (Welman et al. 2005). Furthermore, the data collected from various means are guided by strict research method practices to build a Statistical Analysis. Schuessler (1969) suggests that statistical analysis helps in interpreting the researcher’s objectives by helping to discover complex relationship in the research, both in terms of help and effects. This is carried out with the aid of sophisticated statistical computer packages like those used in Multi-Level Marketing analysis like SPSS. The analysis enables the researchers to determine to what extent there is a relationship between two or more variables.
The Qualitative research questions would be sent to 100 i-Tune users across the globe. Of which an expected 50 numbers would give the right answers for a tabular formulation and hence graphical representation. Schuessler (1969) states, the Quantitative evidence collected would suggest if the Qualitative inputs are required along with what all more needs to be known for a full research analysis. Qualitative data in this web platform would be used as the Primary data for the research purpose. Nevertheless, the secondary source would come from already established sources like books, Journals and media sources. Feedback mechanism that would give a data that was not originally gathered and compiled from the research but has been used to demonstrate the evaluations would be called Secondary Data. Based upon the inferences drawn a few i-Tune users can be interviewed and asked if the offerings were to be made better what all needs to be added. Those would give a comprehensive recommendation for the study.
The Secondary Data would be got from the different published sources like Tech Magazine, Surveys conducted by other individual and agencies with publish source references, for the subject that closely relate to the conclusion. However, Lasker (2003) suggests that all Literature sources are secondary sources that would be used to build the case. Again, Secondary data sources can be either primary or secondary depending upon the source. Keys (1988) suggest that a clear advantage of secondary data is that already a lot of background research has been done before publishing the data and the evaluations thereof. Matta and Holloway (2012) suggests that since secondary data have a pre-established degree of validity and reliability however, the researcher has to use a good amount of pretext check before utilizing those data sources as not all sources are genuine or are effective evaluative for the objective at hand. Therefore Boddington (1993) opined that it is always advised to check the secondary data sources and its reliability in context to the research conducted. Hence, it may be stated that actually one could go as far as claim that qualitative secondary data analysis can be understood, not so much as the analysis of pre-existing data. Hence Ketchen and Bergh (2004) suggest, it is rather as involving a process of re-contextualizing, and re-constructing, data thereof for the research objectives.
The data analysis is the process where the research is concluded with making all effective tools like questioners ready, receive them and articulate the findings in form of results that meets the research objectives. However, the discussion sections at the end of articles in project reviewed is made to describe the results of the study and explain the implications of the findings in a form that have conclusions drawn from the research processes. This evaluates the results in terms of objective evaluation.
Sample and Population: The sample size is the size of arbitrarily chosen bunch for the research purpose from the entire population. In the case, let’s say all Apple Users are the population then sample size would be those who actually take part in the survey in the process. The population in this case would be all Apple product users with an i-Tunes account. Whereas the sample would be those 100 randomly selected from the group that population, again, the 50 who are expected to take part is the sample for the survey in this case.
Quantitative Research: A research of a subject conducted by an individual to gather raw data those further is compiled and processed to reach an evaluation is Quantitative Research. Quantitative research generally progress upon the lines of Questionnaire and online feedbacks received from the sample. Bersted et al. (1970) suggests that the main emphasis of quantitative research is on deductive reasoning which tends to move from the general to the specific. Therefore, the main emphasis of quantitative research is on deductive reasoning which tends to move from the general to the specifics of a research objective evaluation. The sample size is 50 for the research subject.
Qualitative Research: Burita (2014) suggests that a Qualitative research is sometimes referred to as a top down approach. The validity of conclusions is shown to be dependent on one or more premises (prior statements, findings, condition reports) and subjected to the conditions that those sources and its inputs are based upon valid context. However, for more details to find suitable recommendations and have specific problem area identified the Qualitative research may be conducted post the primary data collection. Therefore, 5 people from the population may be selected for a set of 5 question Qualitative interviews where the Skype, or Facebook Chat like modes may be used to further understand demonstrate the research objectives.
Analysis and inference: Ketchen and Bergh (2004) suggest that the number of the findings from the research process is formed on a tabular sheet to analyze the research objectives. These techniques are suggested to be based on a statistical derivation out of Primary data or any other secondary data source. From the found inferences here the inclination towards the hypothesis or otherwise is identified. In this case the Qualitative research would be based upon the findings to find effective recommendations based out of those feedbacks from various locations. Therefore for the research the data analysis would follow the simple deductive methods of statistics use by either simple descriptive or more complex statistical inferences.
Everyday low price
However, the pragmatic approach would be to consider both the elements from Qualitative and Quantitative approach. The best control tool is to evaluate the outcomes in different stages of the research process. Jha (2008) argued that at times the interviewed audience may be politically biased where they wish to give a biased view or may have a tendency to portray a wrong figure or conclusion to actually what they think. Therefore the check and balance system would serve the cause best in keeping the received data true and accurate. Again Arnone and Stockley (2005) observed, the findings of the research might be reported in more personal terms, often using the precise words of the research participants.
The ethics and validity of the research is connected to the research design and approach. Since the research is based out of a question that considers that the value of a product associate is affecting the product as a whole in International markets, therefore the validity needs to be defined from an international perspective. The idea is to select 5 nations from each big continent where Apple has been launched. Therefore, a level of data correction and to ensure that no bias has occurred in data collection and sampling or evaluation process the data validity needs to be checked at a stipulated period each time. However, the ethics of the researcher would be contained towards gathering the data from the right sources along with sufficient resource references and acknowledgement of those sources those are being used. Again, the validity of a data has to be matched since in different parts of the globe the perceptions are different and that there is no bias has to be kept at look at all times.
The research would help the researcher to progress in accordance to the submitted research structure whereby all inputs in regard to the research data collection and evaluation would be done on the grounds of ethical moral practices to get the intended learning outcomes from the research project. Nevertheless, whether the hypothesis on the research subject had been sufficiently correct or to what degree was it was incorrect would be calculated. Eventually the recommendations for the brand to perform better in the long run would be evaluated along with specific needs those need to be undertaken in the international markets.
Arnone, M., and Stockley, G. (2005) “Mac, Information Detective, in– the Curious Kids and the
squiggly question” 2nd Ed, Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited
Jha, N. (2008) Research methodology, 3rd Ed, Chandigarh: Abhishek Publications.
Ketchen, D., and Bergh, D. (2004) Research methodology in strategy and management, 2nd Ed,
Burita, L. (2014) “Information Systems in Education” 1st Ed, Saarbrucken: LAP LAMBERT
Welman, C., Kruger, F., Mitchell, B., and Huysamen, G. (2005) Research methodology. 3rd Ed,
Cape Town: Oxford University Press
Lasker, G. (2003) Acta systemica. 1st Ed, Windsor, Ont.: International Institute for Advanced
Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics
Bersted, C., Brown, B., and Evans, S. (1970) “Evaluation of unconstrained sorting data”,
Behavioral Research Mechanical. and Instrumentation 2(3), 108-110
Boddington, A. (1993) “Methods in research evaluation” Research Evaluation, 3(2), 66-67
Matta, J and P.H. Holloway (2012) “International Research Practices”, International Journal Of
Social Research Methodology, 15(6), pp. 44-48
Keys, P. (1988) “A methodology for methodology choice”. Syst. Res., 5(1), pp. 65-76
Schuessler, K. (1969) “Covariance Analysis in Sociological Research”, Sociological
Methodology, 1(3), pp. 44-45