The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability

The Kindred Floating Station of Bilingualism and Easily-affected Ability: A Critical Harangue and Some New Longitudinal Grounds 320 HAKUTA AND DIAZ ! Kenji Hakuta Yale University ! I Rafael M. Diaz University of N e w Mexlco II I ate bilingual saniples to a n interval such that the prototype of posterior studies o n bilingualism became bunch similitudes of adjustd bilinguals 10 monolingual counterparts equaled o n mismisembezzle shiftings. Second, the products served to assuage cornnibarely held consternations not-absolute-to the products of bilingual counsel. amely, that it would product retarded. poorly educated, anomie indivisibles extraneously frustration to either ethnolinguistic bunch and feeble of functioning in either phraseology (Tucker & d’Anglejan, 1971). Bilingual inconstruction would not generate, the infer immutable, a gregarious or easily-affected Frankenstein. In this passage, we cater a medium re-examination of elaboration antecedent to Peal a n d Lambert’s infer and advance fresh studies o n bilingualism and repute (for a n antecedent re-examination delay a linguistic nucleus, see Lindholm, 1980; for a n ample and inferential re-examination of the pristine 6 decades of elaboration, see Diaz, 1983).In the continuity o f t h e re-examination. we summit out twain presumptive and wayologica~ weaknesses imminent in the natural bilingual-monolingual similitude. In union, we urgency the fewness o f desireitudinal investigations that recognize for the tribute of avowments not-absolute-to the cause-goods kinsmen floating bilingualism and easily-affected abilities. Then, we repute antecedent products from our own infer. which forces to improve for these weaknesses. We promiseinate delay some presumptive speculations in-reference-to the disposition of the kinsmenhip floating bilingualism and purpose. . ! I I I ! . . . I . I . . 1. i 1 !In 1962, Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert of McGill University published a Nursing Dissertation entitled “The Intimation of Bilingualism to Intelligence. ”The elaboration, conducted in Montpenny delay 10-year-old product, assimilated the exploit of monolinguals t o that of bilingual, French/English-symbolical matters on a diversity of criterion ordeals of repute. In disconsonance to antecedent elaboration on bilingualism and repute, Peal and Lambert (1962) discovered that tdevisee bilingual plight exhibitioned preferconducive exploit o n appraises of unrecorded repute and o n nonunrecorded ordeals “involving concept-construction o r symbolic flexibility Ip. 41. ” What irrelativeiated the infer from its ancient kindred was the solicitude delay which Peal and Lambert exercised repress aggravate plight excerption. They acception a disengagement floating penny, “balanced bilinguals” who are expertnessed in twain tdevisee pristine (11) and relieve phraseology (L2) and “pseudo-bilinguals” who, for parti-colored reasons, entertain not yet attained agemisembezzle abilities in tdevisee relieve phraseology. According to Peal and Lambert(l962): “The pseudo-bilingual distinguishs one phraseology greatly improve than the other, and does not use his relieve phraseology in message.T h e penny (or adjustd) bilingual masters twain at a n existing age and has pliancy delay twain as instrument of message [p. 61. ” Into tdevisee plight of bilinguals, barely those infered “balanced” were admitted. Peal and Lambert’s infer had stout collision on two fronts. First, it amending the sense of elaborationers on the tenor of preciousing appropri- ! THE FIRST 4 DECADES OF RESEARCH Psychical studies of the intimation floating bilingualism and easily-affected abilities began in the existing 1920s out of affair amending by the beautiful of psychometric ordeals o f repute.The affair was that bilingual product would knowledge from some linguistic disadvantages, which could, in depend, obviate [air tribute o f tdevisee metaphysical abilities and immanent. The pennyity that the bulk of repute is heavily peaceing on unrecorded abilities made psycholog,ists and educators deeply affaired (and rightabundantly so! ) environing the gaugeness o f such ordeals for bilingual product. As expected, the seniority of studies antecedent to Peal and Lambert’s (1962) infer ground that bilinguals were linguistically blemished in similitude to tdevisee monolingual counterparts. Among other creatures, bilinguals were exhibitionn t o entertain blemished junction (Carrow, 1957). inferior criterions in written commutation, advance close deceptions (Harris, 1948; Saer, 1924). and a inferably stunted glossary (Barke & Williams, 1938; Grabo, 1931; Saer, 1924). Theconsistcnt passage was that bilinguals knowledgeed from a so-named “phraseology agencyicap” (see re-examination5 b i Arsenian. 1937; Darcy, 1953, 1963; Macnamara, 1966). Unfortunately, harmonious passages environing bi1inguals’“lanpuagc agencyicap” led too straightway to statcincnts in-reference-to the infrequented elfccts of bilingualism ! , I . . : I ! . . , , I I I I j I ’ I I ’, .. :_:. ;::. : ’. . :. . , : I , , . ,- . . . . .... , . . . ... . , . , . . . ... . . . ~ . -. .. ,.. .. , . . > _ . .. ... 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 321 322 HAKUTA AND OlAZ . rather than to a symbolical inquirying of the gaugeness of psychometric ordealsof repute for this population. Negative, and rather soul-jarring, avowments condemning bilingualism as a gregarious harass (Epstein, 1905) or as “a burden void of manifest service” (Yoshioka, 1929) were vulgar in the existing scholarship. In inadequate, the appexorbitant phraseology agencyicap of bilinguals was expounded as a linguistic laziness that deeply fictitious product’s metaphysical product and academic exploit up to the initiate years (Saer, 1940). The seniority of existing studies in the area, notwithstanding, knowledgeed from a distant ramble of wayological tenors, and as a product, most confer-upon investigatorsin the arena affect the passages of existing studies as wholly spurious (see Cummins, 1976). A cheerful-natured-natured compute of existing studies, for stance, failed to repress for bunch contrarietys in socioeconomic standing floating bilingual and monolingual plights.As existing as 1930, McCarthy summited out that bilingualism in the US was symbolically confounded delay low socioeconomic standing. She ground that advance than half of the bilingual initiate product could be arrangeified as congenial t o families from the modern drudge occupational bunch. Concurrently the selfselfselfselfidentical methods, Fukuda (1925) alerted elaborationers to the pennyity that lofty-scoring English-symbolical matters were chiefly in the occupational and magistreprove arrangees; he reputeed a corintimation of 3 3 floating the Whiltier (socioeconomic) Flake and the Binet IQ in his plight.Nevertheless, antecedent to the existing 1960s. most studies investigating the possessions of bilingualism on product’s repute did not choose into wholeity bunch contrarietys in socioeconomic standing. A relieve symbolical wayological disgrace of existing studies is that it was regularly debatconducive whether the “bilingual” matters were in pennyity easy in twain phraseologys. Brunner (l929), for stance, conjectured that product’s bilingualism would be estimated by the extraneousness of tdevisee reachrs.Brunner disjoinedd his bilingual plight into three categories: (1) twain reachrs born in this country; (2) one reachr born less and the other aloof; and (3) twain reachrs born aloof. The genus was unmixedly conjectured to portray parti-colored stations of product’s bilingualism. In other studies, the plight’s bilingualism was assessed through producerage names or equal locate of resldence (see Darcy, 1953, for a re-examination). As confer-upon investigators entertain frequently customary, it is unusconducive to verify whether the bilingual matters of divers studies were fixedly bilingual or righteous monolingual of a juvenility phraseology. Toward the end of the 1950s, elaboration o n the possessions of bilingualism exhibitioned the behindcited harmonious passages. Monolinguals executed allude-toively surpassing than bilinguals on appraises of unrecorded repute. On appraises of nonunrecorded power, some studies exhibitioned that monolinguals were too at an service, but bunch contrarietys on this shifting were not harmonious counter studies. However, consequently of the symbolical wayological disgraces righteous mentioned, none of the products, equal if they were statistically allude-toive in either coerce, can be abundantly expounded.Peal and Lambert’s (1962) infer, de- scribed mediumly in the importation, took trudges to aid the excerption O f penny, adjustd bilinguals. In union, it recruited sagacity from antecedent studies in repressling for socioeconomic plane. ! PEAL AND LAMBERT (1962): THE PUNCTUATION POINT IN RESEARCH - I Twain bilingual and monolingual plights for the Peal and Lambert infer were disjoinedd from the selfselfselfselfidentical initiate scheme in Montreal. All I0-year-old product in the scheme were interposed in the modereprove screening by indelicate appraises, the composite of which was used to denote whether the branch should be infered monolingual or adjustd bilingual. The appraises were: ( I ) the not-irresponsible quantity of accounts caterd in a account union lesson in LI and L2; (2) the not-irresponsible quantity of accounts in LI and L2 exposeed in a rotation of letters; (3) the quantity of accounts reexoteric in L2 (English) from a subset disjoinedd from the Peabody Draw Glossary Test; and (4) moral self-ratings& power in symbolical, agreement, balbutiation, and congeniality in L2.Children who cut in the extremes of these flakes were concerned to be monolingual or adjustd bilingual. The conclusive plight consisted of 75 monolinguals and 89 bilinguals; all product were governed a mitigated avowment of the LavoieLarendeau Bunch Ordeal of Open Repute (Lavoie & Laurendeau, 1960). lhe Raven’s Coloured Modifitalented Matrices (Raven, 1956; Raven, Court, & Raven. 1976). and a French avowment of disjoinedd subtests of the Thurstone Primary Moral Abilities Ordeal (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1954). Contrary to the passages of antecedent studies, the products of the Peal and Lamberi infer exhibitioned that bilinguals executed allude-toively improve than monolinguals o n most of the easily-affected ordeals and subtests, equal when bunch contrarietys in sex, age. and socioeconomic standing were missurely repressled. Bilingual product executed allude-toively surpassing than monolinguals on ordeals of twain unrecorded and nonunrecorded abilities; the bilinguals’ preferableity in nonunrecorded ordeals was advance clexisting palpconducive in those subtests that required moral composition and reorganization of visual stimuli, rather than unmixed perceptual abilities.A pennyityor disengagement of ordeal reckonings concerned that bilinguals were preferconducive to monolinguals in concept construction and in lessons that required a fixed moral or symbolic flexibility. Overall, bilinguals were ground to entertain a advance parti-colored exemplar of abilities than tdevisee monolingual peers. . Peal and Lambert’s (1962) passages must be infered delay a fixed station of timidity, notwithstanding. First, as Macnamara (1966) has summited out, the mode of matter excerption command entertain introduced a damage in boon of the bilingual plight.Peal and Lambert’s bilingual plight interposed barely product who reckoningd counterpoiseculmination a fixed concerned plane in the English Peabody Draw Glossary Test, a ordeal commbarely used to appraise repute in monolinguals. I 1 I I I ! , ! i 1 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 323 324 HAKUTA AND OlAZ It is affectly that the repute of French-Canadian product command be rcflected in a appraise of English (the relieve phraseology) glossary.Second, the bilingual plight, on the mediocre, belonged to a surpassing remove than the monolingual plight; possibly the preferableity observed in bilinguals was the product of tdevisee having desireer snare to exact counsel. And third, the quantity dispensation of the Raven’s ordeal reckonings was very irreferring-to for the two bunchs of product; it, was inquickly skewed for bilinguals, inasmuch-as the repugnant was penny for monolinguals. In inadequate, the easily-affected services observed in Peal and Lambert’s adjustd bilingual plight could entertain been inspirited by diverse artifacts in tdevisee matter excerption progresss. As Peal and Lambert (1962) admitted: A inequitconducive sense of this [the products] may lie in our way of choosing the bilingual plight. Those knowledgeing from a phraseology agencyicap may unintentionally entertain been eliminated. We forceed to precious bilinguals who were adjustd, that is. together easy in twain phraseologys. However, when the adfitting appraises did not bestow a unobstructed demonstration of whether or not a bestown branch was bilingual, advance gravity was steadfast to his reckoning on the English glossary ordeals. Thus some bilinguals who command be adjustd, but whose glossary in English and French command be medium, would be omitted from our plight.The less sharp bilinguals, those who entertain not artificial as abundant an English glossary, would not be infered bilingual abundance for our infer [p. IS]. Nevertheless. Peal and Lambert’s (1962) tentative disengagement floating bilinguals and pseudobilinguals made a allude-toive (and greatly wanted) wayological donation to the arena. Tdevisee disengagement has constrained fresh investigators to precious tdevisee bilingual plight delay elder solicitude and appraise the plight’s explicit education of the two phraseologys. RECENT STUDIESSince Peal and Lambert (1962). a diversity of studies entertain been reputeed in o which monolingual product are assimilated t adjustd bilingual product. In most of these studies, adjustd bilinguals entertain exhibitionn services in diverse easily-affected abilities, such as concept construction (Liedtke & Nelson, 1968) and melalinguistic sensibleness (Cummins, 1978). In union, divers studies allude-to that adjustd bilinguals knowledgeimony a elder flexibility than monolinguals in tdevisee exploit on irreferring-to easily-affected lessons (Balkan, 1970).Above all, fresh elaboration not barely has replicated Peal and Lambert’s point passages in-reference-to adjustd bilingualism, but too has bestown tentative food for linguists’ avowments in-reference-to the easily-affected and linguistic services of promotion a branch bilingually. In disconsonance to existing psychical studies of branchhood bilingualism, indidiscernible plight studies by linguists (Leopold, 1939, 1947, 1949a, 1949b; Ronjat, 1913) had promiseinated that existing bilingualism was serviceous to product’s easily-affected and linguistic product.In feature, Leopold (l96l), naturalized on observat ions of his bilingually amending daughter, allude-toed that bilingualism advanced an existing disengagement of the account gauge from the account sense: “a vast incorrectness of the add floating the phonetic account and its sense (p. 3581. ” Furthermore, Leopold postulated a delectconducive intersuccession floating the semantic and easily-affected product of bilingual product, namely that the disengagement of gauge and sense leads to an existing sensibleness of the conveniionality of accounts and the arbitrariness of phraseology.This sensibleness could advance, in depend, advance conceptional planes of thinking. Vygotsky (1935/1975) saw the easily-affected services of bilingualism concurrently the selfselfselfselfidentical methods; in his own accounts (as cited in Cummins, 1976). bilingualism frees the memory “from the prison of indurated phraseology and phenoniena [p. 341. ” Leopold’s observations entertain been ordealed tentativey by lanco-Worrall (1972) in a noteworthy polite-behaved-behaved-designed and repressled infer of English. Afrikaans bilingual product in South Africa. The bilingual plight consisted of initiate initiate product who had been amending in a one special-one phraseology environment. imilar to the top of Leopold’s daughter Hildegard. The plight’s station of bilingualism was concerned by diverse appraises, including inferential interviews delay reachrs and professors as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as a usualed ordeal of the product’s glossary in twain phraseologys. Two resembling monolingual plights, one English and one Afrikaans. were interposed in the infer. in a pristine illustration, product were governed a semantic-phonetic inclinations ordeal. The ordeal consisted of prospect sets of three accounts each. A natural set contained the accounts cup, con, and har.Children were asked inquirys such as: “Which account is advance affect cup, can or hal? ”Choosing the account can or /tal concerned the branch’s phonetic inclination or semantic inclination, appertainingly, in analyzing account harmoniousities. The magnitude to assimilate accounts on the premise of a semantic size is affected as advance delayed productally than comparing accounts concurrently a phonetic size. The products of this illustration exhibitioned not barely that semantic inclinations acceptiond delay age, but too that bilinguals outranked monolinguals in choosing accounts concurrently a semantic rather than a phonetic size.As lancoWorrall(l972) reputeed: “of the give 4-6 year old bilinguals, 54% harmoniously chose to expound consonance $floating accounts in provisions of the semantic size. Of the unilingual bunchs of the selfselfselfselfidentical age, not one Afrikaans debater and barely one English debater exhibitioned harmonious precious comportment (p. l3YSl. ” lanco-Worrall promiseinated that bilingual product amending in a one special-one phraseology environment stretch a position of senlatitic product 2-3 years antecedent than monolingual product. . . ’ ’ . 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 325 326 HAKUTA AND DlAZ &In a relieve illustration, using Vygotsky’s (1962) interviewing techniques, lanco-Worrall (1972) asked her matters to decipher the names of irreferring-to creatures (e. g. , why is a dog named “dog”? ). She too asked product whether or not the names of creatures could be arbitrarily alternate. Children’s confutations to the pristine inquiry were assigned to irreferring-to categories such as ponderconducive attributes, administrative attributes, gregarious cabinet, and so forth. The products of this relieve illustration exhibitioned no accepted contrarietys floating bilingual and monolingual product in the types of senses offered.For the relieve inquiry, notwithstanding, the contrarietys booned the bilingual product; bilinguals replied that names of objects could in energy be radical, inasmuch-as the repugnant was penny for monolingual product. Lindholm (1980) reputes a infer by Sandoval (1976) in which a replication of lanco-Worrall’s products was forceed delay a Spanish/Enlish. plight of kindergartners and third removers. Although tless was a deviate booning the bilinguals, it did not stretch statistical wisdom. However, it is not unobstructed whether the bilingual matters were trustingly adjustd or unmixedly enrolled in bilingual initiates. More freshly, Bain and Yu (1980) investigated the easily-affected consequences of promotion product according to Ronjat’s (1913) one special-one phraseology energy. Bain and Yu deliberation-out German-French. English-French, and Chinese-English bilinguals delay monolinguals from the appertaining phraseologys in three irreferring-to geographical dregss. The peaceing easily-affected shiftings affaired product’s discloseing sensibleness of the functions of phraseology as postulated by Luria and perpendd in lessons such as the power to ensue a set of increasingly compromised coerces in hide-and-affect tops.In feature, Bain and Yu hypothesized that bilingualism would advance the use of phraseology as a self-directive utensil in easily-affected lessons. Using a mitigated avowment of Luria’s (1961) experimoral progresss, the products exhibitioned that, at environing age 4, product amending bilingually in one special-one phraseology environment were improve conducive to use twain aggravatet and cnotorious phraseology as a superinwatch and repress in tdevisee easily-affected functioning. The grounds too booned giveer bilingual product, but this deviate failed to stretch statistical wisdom. Advance symbolically, the passages were harmonious counter irreferring-to phraseology bunchs and geographical tops.Several investigators entertain explored the possessions of bilingualism on the product of metalinguistic sensibleness. Metalinguistic sensibleness alludes to the power to criticise linguistic output extrinsicly; that is, according to Cummins (1978). “to observe of phraseology rather than lhrough it to the planned sense [p. 1271. ’’ Indeed, as product disclose, they grace advance capconducive of observeing at phraseology as an extrinsic set of administrations, as an extrinsic utensil for message. Consequently bilingualism induces an existing disengagement of account and alludeent, it is affectly that bilingual product too disclose an existing magnitude to nucleus on ‘ , and criticise the structural properties of phraseology. Vygotsky( 1935/1962)suggested that, consequently bilinguals could point the selfselfselfselfidentical purpose in irrelative. phraseologys, a bilingual branch would watch to“see his phraseology as one feature scheme floating divers, to examination its phenomena undet advance open categories, and this leads to an sensibleness of his linguistic operations [ 1962, p. I IO]. ” Advance freshly, Ben-Zeev (I 977b) hypothesized that bilinguals dtvelop an analytic diplomacy internal phraseology in prescribe to action suspension floating tdevisee t w o phraseologys.Lambert and Tucker (1972) exalted that product in the St. Lambert bilingual illustration clarified in some character of “contrastive linguistics” by comparing harmoniousities and contrarietys floating tdevisee two phraseologys. Cunmins (1978) investigated the metalinguistic product of third- and sixth-remove Irish-English bilinguals. Product in the plight came from settlements wless twain Irish and English were oral; all product exoteric exact initiate education in Irish. An mismisembezzle monolingual similitude bunch was disjoinedd that was equipollent to the bilingual‘bunch on appraises of IQ and socioeconomic standing.A pristine lesson investigated product’s sensibleness of the arbitrariness of phraseology. Harmonious to the appraise used by lancoWorrall(1972). product were asked whether names of objects could be alternate; they were then asked to decipher or righteousify tdevisee confutations. The products concerned that, at twain third- and sixth-remove planes, bilinguals exhibitioned a elder sensibleness of the selfish ‘disposition of linguistic intimation. In a relieve lesson, product were confer-uponed delay diverse destructive and tautological passages environing some poker chips that were either discernible or mysterious. The passages sundry in two unional sizes: penny versus sham and tentative versus nonempirical. According to Cummins (1978), nontentative avowments allude to passages that “are penny or sham by chastity of tdevisee linguistic shape rather than deriving tdevisee well-balancedt compute from any extralinguistic avow of affairs [p. 129j. ” The lesson was disjoinedd as a appraise of metalinguistic sensibleness consequently antecedent elaborationers had exhibitionn that, in prescribe to evaluate contradictions and tautologies improvely, it is inevittelling to perpend phraseology in,an extrinsic habit.Although the exploit on this evaluation lesson was not unobstructed-cut in boon of the bilinguals, sixth-remove bilingual product exhibitioned a noticetelling preferableity in improvely evaluating mysterious nontentative passages. But Cummins (1978) notes that the monolinguals “analyzed linguistic input less air-tight, substance advance contenteded to bestow the obvious‘can’t decide’ confutation to the mysterious nontentative items [p. 1331. ” In a relieve illustration delay adjustd Ukranian-English bilinguals, Cumniins (1978) investigated product’s metalinguistic sensibleness usiiig a distant diversity of appraises, including disengagement of perplexing passages and a arrank inclusion lesson.Contrary to antecedent passages, the bilinguals in this infer did not exhibition services on the Seniantic-Phonetic Inclination Ordeal or on an arbitrariness of phraseology rask. However, Cummins (1978) reputes that “the products of the Arrank Inclusion and Ambiguities lessons are harmonious delay previ- iI - I I I !! ! .. . .i. ,’) < ‘I .. ’ , , . .>: . ,,,,:’ . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . , , , . io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 327 328 HAKUTA AND DlAZ ous passages in that they allude-to that bilingualism advances an analytic orientation t o linguistic input [p. 1351. In the studies that entertain been feeling, bilinguals exceeded monolinguals in a distant ramble of linguistic and melalinguistic abilities. Bilinguals exhibitioned a elder magnitude to criticise the consonance of accounts concurrently semantic rather than vocal sizes, a elder use of phraseology as a self-directing utensil in easily-affected lessons, and a elder aggravateall sensibleness of the cabinetal disposition of accounts and phraseology. Also, in a irreferring-to infer (Feldman & Shen, 1971). bilingual 5-year-olds were improve than tdevisee monolingual peers at relabeling objects and pointing kinsmen floating objects in isolated passages.This sensibleness or flexibility delay regard to the use of phraseology seems to embody an symbolical role in the easily-affected functioning of bilingual product. In pennyity, diverse investigators entertain privilegeed that bilinguals are advance “cognitively flexible” than monolinguals when performing on twain unrecorded and nonunrecorded lessons. Although the sentiment of easily-affected flexibility has never been adequately deciphered (see Cummins, 1976)’ it is affectly that bilinguals’ remarktelling use and sensibleness of phraseology subscribes to a elder flexibility in the composition of twain unrecorded and nonunrecorded symbols.One of the most regularly cited studies of bilinguals’ easily-affected flexibility was conducted in Switzerland by Balkan (1970). Balkan governed diverse ordeals of nonunrecorded abilities that purportedly appexorbitant easily-affected flexibility. The bilingual bunch, as expected, executed allude-toively surpassing than the repress monolingual bunch in two of these appraises. One lesson, Figures Cachees, compromised the power to reassemble a perceptual top, harmonious to the afftelling Embedded Figures Test. The other lesson, Histoires, compromised sensitivity to the irreferring-to senses of a account.Interestingly abundance, the point possessions of bilingualsm on these appraises were greatly stronger for product who had grace bilingual antecedently the age of 4. The contrarietys floating monolinguals and product who had grace bilingual at a behind age were in boon of the passing but did not stretch statistical wisdom. ’ Balkan’s infer implies, as antecedent indidiscernible plight studies by linguists had allude-toed, that bilingualism command entertain the most availtelling easily-affected possessions for those product who inferiorstand tdevisee two phraseologys coincidently. Consequently adjustd bilinguals entertain two irreferring-to accounts for most alludeents, it s not portentous that they exhibition a elder sensitivity than monolinguals to the affectly irreferring-to senses of a idiosyncratic account, as exhibitionn in the Histoires lesson. On the other agency, Balkan’s infer offers no explication as to how or why bilingualism should subscribe to a elder power to reassemble and reconstruct perceptual arrays, as exhibitionn in the Figures Cachees lesson. As fresh elaboration allude-tos, the explication command be in bilinguals’elder sensibleness and flexibility delay regard to the use of phraseology, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as in tdevisee elder use of twain aggravatet and cnotorious oration in the mentoring of tdevisee easily-affected functioning (Bain & Yu. 980). Advance knowledgeimony of bilinguals’ so-named easily-affected flexibility has been offered by Ben-Zeev’s (1977) infer delay Hebrew-English bilingual product. When assimilated to monolinguals, the bilingual product in the infer exhibitioned a noticetelling preferableity in symbol supply and unrecorded transconstruction lessons. The symbol supply lesson compromised product’s power to commute accounts in a passage according to the illustrationer’s educations. In a natural precedence, product were asked to relocate the account I delay the account spughetli.Children were bestown improve reckonings when they were conducive to say passages affect“Spaghetti om collected,” rather than “Spaghetti iscold” or a harmonious passage that, although air-tight improve, violated the administrations of the amusement. The bilinguals’ surpassing exploit on the unrecorded transconstruction lesson compromised improve counteraction of transmutes in a oral rousing that is public unintermittently by instrument of a tape loop. Warren and Warren (1966) entertain reputeed that when a oral stiinulus is confer-uponed in such a way, matters older than 6 years repute hearing usual transmutes in what the taped vote says.The authors attributed this myth to the product of a reorganization mechanism that aids in the inferiorstanding of ongoing oration. The bilingual product in Ben-Zeev’s infer too outexecuted the monolingual bunch on fixed aspects of a matrix alteration lesson. Bilinguals were improve at isolating and indivisibleizeing the inferiorlying sizes of the matrix, but no bunch contrarietys were ground on the rearrangement of figures in the matrix. The two similitude bunchs too executed harmoniously on Raven’s modifitalented matrices.I t should be exalted that the bilinguals in Ben-Zeev’s infer exhibitioned easily-affected services barely on appraises that were usualedly akin to linguistic power and on the unrecorded aspects of the matrix transconstruction lesson. Ben-Zeev( 1977) exalted that throughout the infer bilingual product seemed to advent the easily-affected lessons in a trustingly analytic way. They too seemed advance placid to twain the constituency and points of the lessons governed, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as advance easily-affected to feedback from the lessons and the expcrimenter.BenZeev deciphered these improved abilities in provisions of bilinguals’ confrontation delay tdevisee t w o phraseologys. She discussd that, in prescribe to shun linguistic suspension, bilinguals must disclose a uncloudedsighted sensibleness of the structural harmoniousities and contrarietys floating tdevisee two phraseologys as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as a extraordinary sensitivity to linguistic feedback from the environment. Supposedly, this advance discloseed analytic diplomacy internal linguistic constituencys is epidemic to other constituencys and exemplars associated delay irreferring-to easily-affected lessons.Ben-Zeev (1977) summarized her products as ensues: Two strategies characterized the thinking exemplars of the bilinguals in intimation to unrecorded symbolical: preparedness to attribute constituency and preparedness to reassemble. I j i I I The exemplars they affect are largely linguistic, but this mode too operates delay visual exemplars, as in tdevisee wish at isolating the diniensions of a matrix. . .. , ... . . .. .. < -,,:i , . I, . . ,r,, . ,, l.. r. %-. r, < . .. .: v . %. i:. , . . .L . _ . . .. ,. . 10.BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 329 . 330 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Delay visual symbolical the spatial reorganizational expertness did not answer, notwithstanding [p. 1017). In misentry, the disposition o r sense of easily-affected flexibility is far from substance abundantly inferiorstood; notwithstanding, the studies righteous re-examinationed allude-to that the flexibility exalted in bilinguals could stock from phraseology-akin abilities, such as the use of phraseology in mentoring easily-affected functioning or an existing sensibleness of the cabinetality and structural properties of phraseology. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE ART The fresh studies allude-to that if one assimilates bilinguals who are approximately equipollent in tdevisee abilities in L l and L2 delay a monolingual bunch equaled for age, socioeconomic plane, and other misspend shiftings and governs a appraise of easily-affected flexibility to twain bunchs, the bilinguals accomplish do improve. Now, infer an mental (from the examinationsummit of cheerful-natured-natured experimoral counsel) elaboration contrivance. You would prepare by preface a vague plight of indivisibles and assigning them vaguely to either an experimoral bunch or repress bunch, thereby repressling for any enhancement deception in sampling.The experimoral bunch is located in an environment that fosiers bilingualism, inasmuch-as the repress bunch debris in a monolingual environment. Unintermittently the treatment has had date to choose goods (Le. , unintermittently the matters in the stipulation entertain grace adjustd bilinguals), you govern your peaceing appraise, making trusting that the special who governs the peaceing appraise is unseeing to whether the matter substance ordealed is in the treatment or repress stipulation. And, lo and survey, you confront a contrariety in boon of bilinguals. Under this mental top, one can reasonably promiseinate that bilingualism causes easily-affected flexibility, o r whatever easily-affected service this flexibility stands for. You could too go on to consider environing why this product came environing and conspenny parti-colored other experimoral stipulations to ordeal your hypotheses. In what ways is the mental elaboration contrivance unaffect the circumstances inferior which confer-upon studies of bilingualism are conducted? We would summit out at feebleest two. First, in the penny globe, tless is n o such creature as vague assignment to a bilingual o r monolingual bunch.Most regularly, bilingualism or monolingualism is concerned by sociolinguistic pennyitys that are, as would be penny of most sociolinguistic pennyitys, akin to a distant ramble of gregarious shiftings. What this pennyly instrument is that tless accomplish be a abundant compute of shiftings that irrelativeiate the bilingual from the monolingual other than unmixedly that the bilingual speaks two phraseologys and the monolingual one. It is affectly. of continuity, to equal the two bunchs delay regard to some shiftings (e. g. , ethnicity) or to repress them statistically (e. g. , by inequitableing out the possessions’of socioeconomic plane).But at what summit can we be acquiescent that all the rele- ’ vant shiftings entertain been repressled for, such that the contrariety floating the two bunchs can be attributed to the compute of phraseologys that the special distinguishs? SO, the unbeliever could discuss, “While you entertain repressled for u,b,c,d,e, andj. you entertainn’t repressled for g. ” The relieve way in which the mental top is unaffect the pennyity of the studies is advance wayological and has to d o delay the excerption of a unseeing progress (a double-unseeing is unusable, consequently presumably the matters would distinguish whether they are bilingual or monolingual).In none of the studies re-examinationed entertain we seen knowledgeimony of forces by the elaborationers to protect the harmoniousness of the matter unseeing to the illustrationer. If the illustrationer is uncloudedsighted on the conjecture of the infer and in union distinguishs whether the matter is a bilingual or a monolingual branch, one cannot administration out unplanned experilnenter damage possessions(Rosentha1, 1976). In custom, it may be entirely troublesome to force t o conduct a unseeing progress. Bilingual and monolingual product are most regularly ground in irreferring-to initiates, irreferring-to neighborhoods, and would probably exhibition some comportmental manifestations of tdevisee linguality.It is, notwithstanding, an goods that one must submit-to in memory when expounding the products of studies using the prototype contrivance. The wayological tenors stockming from the pennyity of explicit bilingual tops watch troublesomey to fooding tentatively the privilege that bilingualism is associated delay elder easily-affected flexibility. One inequitconducive discontinuance to twain of these tenors can be achieved in a rarely used contrivance of observeing at possessions delayin a bilingual plight (Duncan & DeAvila, 1979).If station of bilingualism can be reliably appexorbitant delayin a plight of product seemly bilingual and if this appraise of station can be exhibitionn to be akin to easily-affected flexibility, then one would entertain supervene one trudge closer to passage a unclouded kinsmenhip floating bilingualism and easily-affected flexibility. Using a delayinbilingual plight, it is too affectly to repress for illustrationer damage. Inasgreatly as the matters could supervene from the selfselfselfselfidentical initiates, if the LI and L2 abilities were kept unseeing to the illustrationer, it would minimize damage possessions.In union to the aculmination tenors, tless is the concerned but untested avowment environing coerce of well-balancedtuality. As Peal and Lambert (1962) put it: “one may ask whether the advance sharp product, as appexorbitant by nonunrecorded repute ordeals, are the ones who grace bilingual, or whether bilingualism itself has a boonconducive goods on nonunrecorded repute [p. 131. ” One agencyle on this tenor would be through a desireitudinal infer in which twain shiftings are appexorbitant frequently aggravate date. We are sensible of righteous one siudy (Barik &Swain, 1976) in which desireitudinal grounds were helpful.Barik and Swain assimilated 32 low L2 achievers delay 32 lofty achievers in a French immersion program in Ottawa aggravate a 3-year era (Grades K-3). They repute that the lofty achievers executed improve on subtests of analogies and behindcited unrecorded coerces equal when modereprove IQ reckonings at Date I were repressled. j io. BILINGUALISM A N D COGNITIVEABILITY 331 332 HAKUTA AND OlAZ The infer we repute in the peace of the passage orationes the aculmination affairs delay antecedent studies of the kinsmenhip floating bilingualism and easily-affected flexibility.We are assiduous in assessing the not-irresponsible abilities in twain LI and L2 of product‘in the mode of seemly bilingual and in behindcited them on a desireitudinal premise to denote whether station of bilingualism is akin to easily-affected flexibility and to assess the coerce of well-balancedtuality floating linguistic and easily-affected shiftings. Description of the Project The matters in our infer are confer-upmerely enrolled in arrangees from the Bilingual Inconstruction Program in the New Haven, Connecticut, notorious initiates.Children who are enrolled in the program are dominant in Spanish. Look in the bilingual program for the matters is concerned largely on the premise of inconstruction caterd by the reachrs and by the professors of the arrangerooms to which they are moderately assigned. Product who are reputeed as substance scientificly Spanish-symbolical or chiefly Spanish-symbolical are channeled into the bilingual arrangees, occasion those reputeed as predominantly or scientificly English-symbolical are located in monolingual, mainstream arrangerooms.Those product who reputeedly use twain phraseologys are advance assessed for prevalence through the Phraseology Tribute Battery, and Spanish-dominant product are located in the bilingual arrangerooms. . The usualedor of the bilingual program estimates that of the 165,000 residents in New Haven, tless are 18,000 Hipics, largely Puerto Ricans. Tless are at confer-upon roughly 2700 Hipic students in the initiate scheme floating Grades K-12,of which roughly 45% are in bilingual arrangees; All bilingual arrangees are conducted on a 5050 pertinency of Spanish and English as phraseologys of education.Based on professor admonition, when the product advent equivalence floating tdevisee English and Spanish power, they are located into the mainstream, English monolingual arrangees. Thus, affect most bilingual inconstruction programs in the United States, the New Haven program is modifitalented in disposition, as divergent to the livelihood or immersion programs ground in Canada (see Swain, 1 7 ) 94. THE PRESENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY The two-dimensional interval generated by not-irresponsible abilities in Ll and L2 is drawd in Fig. 0. 1 (a), noticetelling by a method delay a swell of 1 concurrently which mentally adjustd bilinguals accomplish bunch. This two-interval is, of continuity, an’mental top that is unmeasured, and we confer-upmerely entertain no way of locating any bestown plight of bilingual indivisibles in irresponsible provisions. Thus, depending on plight characteristics, the two-interval defined by a set of LI and L2 appraises can dissimilate. Figure IO. I (b) exhibitions two not-absolutely plights, A and B, wless B portrays a bunch of indivisibles that is advance “balanced” than A.The summit is that although we cannot denote the two-interval dregs of a bunch of bilinguals in any feature infer using a feature appraise, the possessions of station of bilingualism can be deliberation-out by observeing at the discrepancy in the L2 appraise occasion repressling for discrepancy in the L1 appraise. As can be seen in Fig. 1 . 01 (c), indidiscernible A2 is advance bilingual than indidiscernible AI, and B2 is advance bilingual than BI. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in L2 repressling for discrepancy in L1 is attributconducive t o the station of bilingualism, and this discrepancy should be akin in a point way to easily-affected power. (Cl . SubjectsAt Date I (the preparening of the Sink Semester), we began by screening all product in the kindergarten and pristine-remove arrangees in three initiates in the New Haven notorious initiate scheme. We wanted to except from the infer product who exhibitioned knowledgeimony of open phraseology languor. All 180 product were governed a Spanish despatches of the Peabody Draw Glossary Ordeal (SPVT), which is feeling in advance point behind. On the premise of the dispensation of the SPVTscores, matters whosereckoning was advance than I criterion deflexion underneath the medium were eliminated. Our ordeal-naturalized evaluations were harmonious delay the reputes of arrangeroom professors. In sum, out of the modereprove 180, we were left delay 154 matters, who were advance ordealed delay the peace of the Date I appraises. By Date 2, approximately 6 months behind, 30 of the I54 matters had moved afar from the initiate scheme, leaving US delay 124 matters. In union (or, advance precisely, in disconnection), a fostering matter at Date 2 was so ‘exceedingly dominant in English at twain dates that she was etiminated from LZ ABILITY LZ ABILITY L2 ABILITY FIG. 10. 1 Conceplualization of adjustd bilingualism, how irreferring-to bilingual plights are embedded delayin it, and how indivisibles are cmbcdded delayin plights.Panel a exhibitions . mental adfitting tine floating LI and LZ abilities. Panel b exhibitions locatement of two irreferring-to plights (A and B) delayin mentalircd interval. Panel c exhibitions indivisibles delayin the plight spades. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 333 334 ’ HAKUTA AND DlAZ the infer as substance entirely irreferring-to from the peace of our plight. Thus, our conclusive plight for the pristine year of the infer consisted of 123 matters, and we liberty out of advance harangue the peace of the matters. The plight of 123 matters contained 56 (45%) kindergartners and 67 (55%) pristine removers, delay 55 (45Crlo) girls and 68 (55%) boys.All of these product were of Puerto Rican descent. The medium age was 6 years 0 months, delay a ramble from 4. 1 to 8. 3. Aside from this open counsel, which was availconducive for all matters, we obtained advance point demographic infomation through a inquirynaire sent to the reachrs. The inquirynaires were nice at Date 1, and of our plight, 88 (72%) responded, some behind a relieve desire. We entertain executed some analyses to see whether the estimates obtained from the inquirynaire confutations would be reasonconducive estimates for the whole plight.We assimilated all availconducive shiftings in the infer floating responders and nodresponders and did not confront any allude-toive contrarietys in the instrument. Thus, we exhibit the 88 confutations to be a reasonably unprejudiced portrayation of the population plightd. The inquirynaire grounds denote that 42% of the matters were born in the United States, the peace in Puerto Rico. The reachrs entertain lived in the continental United States for a medium of 2 years (SD = 6 years), ranging from 5 months to 26 years. They entertain lived at tdevisee reputeed oration for an mediocre of 2 years (SD = 1 year, IO months), delay the ramble extending from I month to 8 years.Tless is a medium of . 91 rooms per tenant in the everyday (SD = . 60). Of the culminations of everyday, 37To are assiduous and 63% are useless. Pursuit is usualedly akin to the compute of adults in the everyday. Of all inquirynaire respondents, 55% were idiosyncratic-maker culminations of everyday, and 32% had two adults in the everyday. Of the two-adult everydays, 64% (18/28) had the culmination assiduous, inasmuch-as barely 14% (6142) of idiosyncratic-adult everyday culminations reputeedly were assiduous. The allude-toive union floating compute of adults and pursuit, x2(l) = 18. 4, p = . 001, is harmonious delay the agreement that idiosyncratic reachrs in open entertain low reproves of pursuit, presumably due in part t o the pennyity that a solicitudetaker would be required at settlement. Barely a medium juvenility of the matters are extraneously siblings (790). The median compute of siblings is 2. In the inquirynaire, we too asked the reachrs to reprove the interval to which Spanish and English are used floating parti-colored indivisibles at settlement. We caterd a 5-summit flake, delay 1 harmonious to “barely Spanish,” 3 to “twain Spanish and English,” and 5 to “barely English. In all three affectly discontinuity combinations (adult-child, branch-sibling, adult-adult), the confutations were heavily skewed internal Spanish (for adult-child, I = 42%, 2 = 23%. 3 = 33%, 4 = 2%. 5 = 0%; for branch-sibling, I = 32%, 2 = 21%. 3 = 43?? 00. = 2%, 5 = 2%; for adult-adult, 1 = 50%. 2 = 32%. 3 = 17%, 4 4 = 2%. 5 = 1%. These three ratings of the interval of use of Spanish and English at settlement are loftyly correlated, r = 3 2 to r = t . 61, and when liberaly, akin inquickly delay the years of occupation the United States mainland mentioned antecedent, r = + . 34.It answers that the desireer the cling (and the antecedent the year of look) in the United States, the advance the dominant phraseology permeates the settlement. + Measures The power in Spanish (LI) was assessed by governing an adaption o f the Peabody Draw Glossary Ordeal reputeed and nice by Wiener, Simond, and Weiss (1978). Affect the English avowment of the Peabody Draw Glossary Ordeal (Dunn, 1965). the ordeal is indivisiblely governed and consists of the branch choosing a rotation of glossary items (ordered by increasing agenormed troublesomey) out of indelicate drawd choices. Wiener et al. criterionized devisee Spanish avowment on Puerto Rican product in New York City. English (L2) power was assessed through Shape A of the glossary ordeal. We allude to the Spanish ordeal as SPVTand the English ordeal as EPVT; when they are ensueed by a compute (EPVTI, EPVT2, SPVTI, SPVTZ), thecompute alludes to the Date (1 = sink o r 2 = flow) shifting. We should reach it unobstructed at this summit that we did not inwatch to use these glossary ordeals as a appraise of repute, as is commbarely used (and misused) in monolingual populations. Rather, they were mediumt to be a appraise of the not-irresponsible abilities delayin each of the two phraseologys for our bilingual plight.It should be exalted less that the numerical raw reckonings for the two ordeals are not resembling. That is to say, a branch who receives a reckoning of 20 on twain the EPVT and SPVT cannot be infered equipollent in his or her not-irresponsible abilities in English and Spanish. On the other agency, the SPVT and EPVT entertain knowledgeimonyd the power to arrank product reliably concurrently the appertaining Spanish and English phraseology advancement sizes. In prescribe to validate the SPVT and EPVT as appraises of phraseology, a bunch of 40 product delayin our plight was bestown a legend-retelling lesson in the two phraseologys.Both the Spanish and English stories consisted of 14 passages, paired delay cartooh draws. The illustrationer pristine told the legend occasion flipping through a draw size and, directly upon gist, asked thebranch to decide the legend cued by the draws. Thechild’s utterances were tape recorded and posteriorly transcribed. The protocols were reproved in a 5-summit flake, delay 1 substance minimal use of the phraseology and 5 substance liberal fluency, by two inresting reprovers. Barely fluency was arbiterd; exactness of the retelling was ignored for this infer. lnterrater reliablities were . 96 (Spearman-Brown) for English and . 9 (Spearman-Brown) for Spanish. The medium ratings for twain English and Spanish were allude-toively corakin delay the EPVTI and SPVTI reckonings, r = . 82 for English rating delay EPVTI, r = + . 36 for ’ - + 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 335 336 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Spanish. The inferior Spanish corintimation most affectly animadverts the pennyity that the ramble of SPVTl reckonings was advance peacericted than the EPVTI reckonings for this feature subsaniplr and too the possibility that the product are advance Spanish-dominant and a isolated legend-retellihg lesson may not animadvert contrarietys at surpassing planes of linguistic power. We are confer-upmerely pursuing advance validation of the vocabularly appraises, but for the gravity venerate that the ordeals do animadvert entirely precisely our matters’ discrepancy in power in twain phraseologys. As a appraise of nonunrecorded easily-affected power, we chose the Raven’s Coloured Modifitalented MatricesTest (Raven, 1956; Raven et al. , 1976). a appraise on which the most muscular contrarietys were ground floating bilinguals and nionolinguals in the Peal and Lambert infer. R a w reckonings rather than percentiles were used consequently the ordeal has not been criterionized on populations coniparconducive to ours.The Raven reckonings at Date I and Date 2 are lessbehind alludered to a s Ravenl and Raven2. In union to t hcse nieasures, we governed a ordeal of metalinguistic abili t y (to arbiter the closeity of Spanish passages and to expose English accounts embedded in Spanish passages) and a appraise of gregarious perpectivepreface (Chandler’s “bystander cartoons”), but these grounds are stagnant in the mode of substance criticised and are not reputeed in this passage. Procedures All nieasures were governed indivisiblely at the initiates ‘in void rooms or quiet hallway corners by Spanish-English (balanced) bilingual illustrationers.Except for confer-uponation of the EPVT items, all ordealing was conducted in Spanish. Each appraise was governed twice, unintermittently during the sink semester (Time I ) atid intermittently in the flow (Time 2). The mediocre date lag floating the two dates was 6 months. Except for the distraction that SPVTl was governed pristine at thc very preparening of the infer for modereprove screening, as mentioned antecedent delay intimation to plight excerption, prescribe of ordeals was counterbalanced. At each date, each branch was ordealed in three sessions, one delay the SPVT. econd delay the EPVT, and third delay the easily-affected ordeals. In prescribe that the illustrationer accrue unseeing to the branch’s power in twain phraseologys, the selfselfselfselfidentical illustrationer never tes‘ied any partichar branch in twain EPVT and SPVT; future. the matter’s station of bilingualism was noi distinguishn t o ! he illustrationers until behind gist of the grounds collation. bilingualisin at Date 1 forecast easily-affected power at l i m e 2 , or choicely, does easily-affected power at Date I forecast station of bilingualisrn at Date 2?IVirhin-Time Anulysis: T h e 1. The instrument and criterion deflexions for Date I and Date 2 appraises can be ground in Tconducive 10. 1. The pristine atlalysis di- vided matters into bunchson the bases of tdevisee abilities i n each latiguage. We bunched matters into three planes of EPVT reckonings unproductive three levcls of S I W reckonings, the transversion of which products nine bunchs. EPVTI raw reckonings rambled from 3 to 55, M = 26. 24, SD = 14. 86, and SPVTl raw reckonings rambled from 21 IO 81, M = 44. 32, S D = 13. 26. Upon mistake of the grounds. we felt that. 0-summit intervals for twain EPVT and SPVT raw reckonings would portray reasonconducive flakeing of matters delay regard to tdevisee abilities, recognizing of continuity that the partition is selfish and conducted singly for purposes of inspecting contrarietys feeling in instrument. The behindcited were partitions, imposed twain on the Date 1 and Date 2 grounds: Spanish Flake 1: SPVT 1-40; Spanish Flake 2: SPVT 41-60; Spanish Flake 3: SPVT elder than 60; Engfish Flake I: EPVT 1-20; English Flake 2: EPVT 21-40; English Flake 3: EPVT elder than 40.Means and criterion deflexions for Raven I reckonings for each of the nine bunchs lashed of the transversion of the Spanish and English flakes can be ground in Tconducive 10. 2 (a). Mistake of the instrument allude-tos strongly that Ravenl instrument acception delay increasing planes of English flakeing. However, this is confounded delay the ages of the matters in the bunchs, as can be observed in Tconducive 10. 2 (b). The exhibit trudge was to assess the force of the kinsmenhip floating station of bilingualism and easily-affected power through inequitconducive interrelation, wless EPVTI is corakin delay Ravenl, repressling for age and SPVTl .The parindicating a allude-toive intimationtial corintimation coefficient is . 267 p = . W2, ship floating station of bilingualism and nonunrecorded easily-affected power. TABLE 10. 1 Instrument and Criterion Deviations 01 Baric Measures lor the Bilingual Plight 1iiS 123) Aftair --. . . . . . . . . . . * ’ SI) lU. 15 14. 116 71. 11Y 26. 24 44. 33 15. 34 13. 26 3. 17 10. 15 16. YJ 1. 1. 56 Results 77. IY Tless are t w o separeprove inquirys we ask of the grounds. First, is station of bilingualism akin to easily-affected power at any one date? This can be answered by observeing delayin Date I and delayin Date 2 disjoinedly.Second, does station of 33. YY 5?. 6Y . 16. 16 3. 11 ,... I ... .. , . . . . . . . . . ... ,, , . . .. . . . . . ... , . , . . .~ . .. , .. . . ... .. .. .. .. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 337 338 HAKUTA AND DlAZ TABLE 10. 2(a) Ravel11 M e a n s lor Bilingual Groups English 1. ql’c. r I 11’ I‘1‘ ( I . ‘ U ) I. o,iw 2 -. . l. :iycr - ._ .... 11’ I’7’ -7 I 40) . . . . . flake 3 EP I’r (>40) 3 P a I1 (> 6 0 ) I. :l). lvL SI’V I’ SD- A1 = 11. 0 0 11 zI ’ suI1 dl = 13. 5 ?. I : : nr = 18. 3 S D = 5. 7 11 2 = 7 SI’V I i s ,I 141-60) IAyvI I SI’V I’ I141l) AI= 14. 4 SI) . - 3. 0 t l - - 15 .! I = 15. S I ) = 2. 6 I I = 3n A I = 16. 4 SI) = 3. 2 I I = 14 ~~ M = 16. 5 SI) = 3. 5 I1 Wifhin-Time Arrulysis: Date 2. The aggravateall instrument for the appraises at Date 2 can be ground in Tconducive 10. 1. The inferential instrument exhibitionn in Tconducive 10. 3 indivisibleize Raven’s planes and age planes when the matters were disjoinedd into bunchs by Spanish and English flakeings using the selfselfselfselfidentical criteria as hi Date 1. The inequitconducive corintimation of EPVTZ and Raven2, repressling for age and SPV2 is . 3 5 7 , p < . W l . Persuasive for thesocioeconomic vaiables, the kinsmenhip does not transmute stoutly, inequitconducive corintimation = . 28l, p = J O N .Thus, bolh Date I and Date 2 grounds denote Illat station of bilingualism is akin IO exploit on the Raven’s matrices. Between- Tinre Analysis. We contriveal antecedent that station of bilingualism is pointly akin to Ravens at twain dates. However, which of these is TABLE 10. 31al Rave112Means lor Bilingual Groups ....... ....... ..... -. = I4 nl = 14. 3 S I ) = 2. 5 11 = 3 0 AI = 13. 5 $1) = . 8 II = 2 TABLE 10. 2fb) Mea11 Age lor Eiliiigual Gioups at Date 1 .. EIIRliSh 1v. vc. r 2 . . . , ... ....... /. iiwr English I. uw I kl’l’. I‘ ( I . 3 l ) ... ....... La. w 3 t7iv (>4(1) A = 79. 0 I SI) = 5. 8I1 * El’l. 7‘ ( 21 4 1 ) ... ....... ....... ... ICI’I~ I’ (>. 40) . .I Lupr I . . -. - . . . . . . . t‘P I’ I ( I . 20) AI = 14. 0 SI) = 0 I1 = I ... ...... I:‘r1r. (-7i. JuI .. .... ... 82. 0 SI) = 8. 485 I1 = 2 Ill = I. u. iw -7 flake 3 . SI’V I .! I = 14. 8 SI) = 2. 8 II l. ;lyrr 3 SI’VI (>6Ot a I1 S (>601 = 6 A = 17. 0 I SI) = 3. 4 II = I I A1 = 18. 8 S I ) = 4. 1 11 = 17 SI) = = 7 L;l)rr 2 SI’V 1’ (4l-bIl) S AI = 71. 4 S I ) = 11. 5 II = I 5 AI = SI) = ll = 7i. n 8. 1 3n A1 = 79. 4 SI) = 7. 1 II p Lycr ? a SYVT, n 141-60) .! I = 14. 2’ S I ) = 1. 6 I1 = 15 .ll = 13. 9 Ar = 15. 1 SI) = 3. 0 ll = 2 0AI = 17. 7 4 . I I1 = 31 = 14 ’ I1 i Flake I 11 Layct I SI’V’I’ (I-40) d l = 61. 9 S I ) = 3. 4 I I = 30 dl = 66. 4 Sf) = 7. 3 II = 14 AI = 6 3 SI) = 7. 071 11 = 2 SPVI I > 140) SI) = 11 I . 7 = IO AI = 13. 4 SI) = 2. 5 ll = I O AI = 18. 7 S I ) = 4. 2 II = 3 TABLE 1 0 3 b l Medium Age lor Bilingual Groups at Date 2 -~ Froni the reachr inquirynaires, we interposed two appraises of the socioecononiic planes of the matters. One was unmixedly whether the culmination of houser stay was assiduous (coded 1) o unassiduous (coded 0). The other was the compute of rooiiis in tdevisee occupation, disjoinedd by the compute of tenants.AIthough the Iwo iiicasures were not akin. r = . 09. ns, twain werecorakin delay EPVTI, for eniployment, r = -20, p c . 0 5 ; for settlement interval, r = . IN, p c . 0 5 . When EPVTl is corakin delay Raven1 repressling for these socioeconomic shiftings i n union to age and SPVTl, the kinsmenhip is stagnant signil’icantly diffcrent from 0, inequitconducive corintimation = . 201,p4 0 ) 3 ’ SI’’l I’ a .! I = 74. 0 SI) = I I . I II Ai = nn. ? 6. 3 17 SI) = l l = 1>60l I. d)t! l = 6 = II z I . I / = 71. 7 AI = 77. 8 SI) = 9. 4 11 n SI’’ 5 141-60 II I S ) C l I SI’V I ( > 1-40) SI) = 10. I I = 15 AI = 79. 9 SI) H. 1 II 20 . = 31 .I1 = 67. 3 S I ) = 2. 9 II = 10 d l = 7 I . (I SI) = 7. 7 11 II) AI = 72. 3 SI) = II H. S 3 = . . . . . . . . “ ... ... ,. ,.. :. . .. ,:.. -! ^? :. ~. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TABLE 10. 4 Zero-Order Corintimation Matrix lor Phraseology and Ravens 81 Twain Timer @I = 123) 339 340 HAKUTA AND DIAZ N Agc AXC .476 . 658 . I66 . 446 EI'l'TI SI'Y7'1 H . ____--_. ___a i w t l . 476 . 658 . I 66 .445 . 445 kP1'72 . 446 . E28 ~pV7'2 - /(aiwr 2 . 35 I . 484 . J 36 . 486 ,466 ,331 - . - . . . grounds helpful.Raven2 was regressed on age, Raven 1, SPVTI, SPVT2, pursuit, and occupation in Trudge I; then EPVTI in Trudge 2. EPVTl stagnant conducted a allude-toive Beta, . 251, F ( I , 69) = 3 . 8 9 , ~ . OS. Multiple R was = 3 4 , delay EPVT adding 4% internal forecasting disagreement in Raved. DISCUSSION We began our infer delay a affair that studies reputeed in the scholarship did not unambiguously exhibition that bilingualism fosters easily-affected product. A pristine troublesomey was that most studies compromised bunch similitudes of bilinguals and monolinguals. and hence, the products could be attributed to bunch contrarietys other than phraseology power.Second, most studies compromised cross-sectional similitudes wless cause-goods kinsmenhips could not be missurely evaluated. The infer righteous reputeed reachs advance specious the privilege environing the point possessions of bilingualism. First, we were conducive to exhibition an goods wifhin a plight of bilinguals. And relieve, when two choice moulds for the coerce of well-balancedtuality were ordealed on the desireitudinaldata, the mould privilegeing station of bilingualism to be the causal add was advance harmonious delay our obtained grounds than the mould privilegeing easily-affected power to be the f causal shifting.By the end o the liberal promise of this desireitudinal infer. in which we accomplish ensue up the matters for an unional 2 years, delay the union o other easily-affected appraises, we trust to reach an equal stronger privilege ref garding the point possessions of bilingualism on easily-affected abilities. The pennyity that our grounds food the privilege that bilingualism fosters easily-affected product is righteous a pristine trudge in agreement the issues at agency. The inquiry debris as to how bilingualism affects easily-affected power, especially when easily-affected power is appexorbitant by exploit in nonunrecorded lessons.A desire date ago, Leopold (949b) postulated that bilingual product were constrained to surpassing planes of conceptional purpose by the existing want to separeprove the account from its alludeent. In a harmonious disposition, Cummins (1976) and Ben-Zeev (1977) entertain allude-toed that the easily-affected services of bilingualism could be deciphered by bilinguals' want l objectify and treat linguistic constituencys. Ben-Zeev. for o stance, discusss that in prescribe to shun linguistic suspension bilingual product must disclose a elder sensibleness and sensitivity to linguistic cues.Bilinguals' elder sensitivity to linguistic constituency and point is then epidemic and openized to irreferring-to unrecorded and nonunrecorded lessons. The mode by which bilinguals' metalinguistic sensibleness affects exploit in nonunrecorded tes~s such as the Ravens has never been adequately deciphered or inferiorstood. Bain and Yu's (1980) infer allude-tos that bilinguals are improve conducive to use phraseology as a utensil to mentor easily-affected functioning, increasing tdevisee magnitude to memorize inconstruction and repress advance goodsively the irreferring-to trudges in solving a tenor. Cognitive-developmoral re- WV'JI SPV'JI Rivcnl I:PV'I'Z . 3 I 8 .I65 .318 . 8? 8 .I65 SPVTZ Kavrn2 .522 .351 ,333 . 484 .399 . 687 .436 315 .399 . 315 .)I6 ,466 ,522 . 333 . 687 . I 20 . 3 I 6 . I 28 .486 .33 I - the causal pennyityor? Specifically, we want to distinguish whether Raven2,can be forecasted by station of bilingualism at Date 1 occasion repressling for the mismisembezzle shiftings (including Ravenl), or whether we can decipher advance disagreement by forecasting station of bilingualism at Date 2 by Ravenl occasion repressling for mismisembezzle shiftings (including station of bilingualism at Date I). These choices are not mutually scientific, of continuity, but statistical exclusion of one mould reachs the choice mould advance specious.The zero-prescribe corintimation matrix of age, EPVTI, SPVTI, Ravenl, EPTV2, SPVTZ, and Raven2 can be ground in Tconducive 10. 4. From the basic inconstruction feeling, we ordealed two choice moulds using multiple retreat. The pristine disengagement ordealed the inoperative conjecture that station of bilingualism is not forecasted by Ravens. In a trudgewise multiple retreat, EPVT2 was regressed on age, EPVTI. SPVTI, and SPVTZ in Trudge I; then Ravenl was entered in Trudge 2. The symbolical statistic less is the Beta for Ravenl for its Fratip.The products of the disengagement exhibition that Ravenl does not add allude-toively to the disagreement wholeityed for when repressling for age, EPVTI, SPVTI, and SPVTZ, Beta = . 056, F ( I , 117) = 1. 077, ns. The multiple R for the conclusive equation was . 832. Ravenl subscribed barely . 3% unional disagreement internal forecasting EPVT2. We promiseinate, then, that the inoperative conjecture cannot be uncommon. In the relieve disengagement, we ordealed the inoperative conjecture that station of bilingualism does not forecast Raven reckonings. In this trudgewise multiple retreat, Raven2 was regressed on age, Ravenl, SPVTI, and SPVTZ entered in Trudge 1; then EPVTI entered in Trudge 2.The products exhibition a allude-toive Beta for EPVTI, Beta = . 252, F ( I , 1 17) = 8. 761, p < . 01. The multiple R for the conclusive equation was . 643. EPVTI subscribed 4. 1% unional disagreement internal forecasting RavenZ, equal when the other shiftings were entered pristine, Thus, we decline the inoperative conjecture in boon of the expoundation that station of bilingualism affects nonunrecorded easily-affected power. To repress for socioeconomic plane. we resolute to ordeal the products repressling for eniployment and settlement interval for the 77 matters for whom we had . , io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 41 342 HAKUTA AND DlAZ I I I I exploration exhibitions an increasing use of unrecorded reconciliation in the exploit of nonunrecorded lessons delay increasing age (Conrad, 1971). Furthermore, Hunt’s (1974) elaboration allude-tos that exploit on the Raven ordeal would be improved by the use of linguistic, rather than spatial, strategies in the discontinuance of the matrices. It is affectly, as Diaz (1983) allude-toed, that branchhood bilingualism fosters a rather premature use of unrecorded reconciliation in the modeing of inconstruction and this, in depend, deciphers bilinguals’ improved exploit on nonunrecorded lessons.One of the main troublesomeies in sympathetic such symbolical inquirys lies in the pennyity that most studies in the area entertain relied on grounds from psychometric ordeals. To the best of our education, tless are no counsel-processing studies of give bilingual product, and it is not unobstructed what easily-affected modees or easily-affected strategies, if any, trustingly irrelativeiate bilingual from monolingual product. It is approximately unusable, delay our confer-upon education, to disclose a mode mould of how bilingualism affects product’s easily-affected abilities or accelerates easily-affected product. The product (and tentative food) of a inferential mould about bilingualism and easily-affected product is stagnant a few years afore. Finally, speculation discloseed at the indidiscernible plane of the branch must notwithstanding be akin to the abundantr draw of bilingualism as it occurs in parti-colored shapes environing the globe. An symbolical disengagement that must be interposed in any infer of the possessions of bilingualism is floating embracing versus subtractive bilingualism (Lambert, 1978; Lambert & Taylor, 1981). hich is akin to the disengagement floating upper ten versus folk bilingualism {Fishman, 1977; Paulston, 1975. 1980). In an embracing top. product inferiorstand tdevisee relieve phraseology in union to tdevisee pristine, thus creating adjustd bilingualism. As Lambert and Taylor (1981) freshly put it: “an embracing shape of bilingualism limplies] that these product, delay no consternation of ethnic/linguistic erosion, can add one or advance extraneous phraseologys to tdevisee accumulating expertnesss, and avail immensely from the knowledge, easily-affectedly, gregariously, and equal economically Ip. 141. In a subtractive top, the relieve phraseology ghostly supplys the pristine. To repeat Lambert and Taylor (1981) unintermittently intermittently: “the hyphenated American branch, affect the French-Canadian branch, embarks o n a ‘subtractive’ bilingual path as early as he/she enters a initiate wless a lofty prestige, gregariously puissant, dominant phraseology affect English is introduced as the scientific phraseology of education [p. 141. ” As Cummins (1976) summited out, studies that entertain exhibitionn point possessions of bilingualism habitually are conducted in tops of embracing bilingualism.