Effective Techniques For Monitoring And Encouraging Staff Members To Solve Problems

Encouraging Staff Members to Solve Problems

Unit name- Monitor work operations

  1. The three stages in which the process of monitoring work operations is broken down includes:
  • Create specific forms of measurement to help you determine what level of workplace operational productivity employees should be performing at in a given day, week or month.
  • Develop a system for monitoring operational progress on a daily, weekly or monthly basis
  • Create an accountability system in which employees document time usage during a given time period.

Rankin, Amy, et al. “Resilience in everyday operations: a framework for analyzing adaptations in high-risk work.” Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making 8.1 (2014): 78-97.

  1. Monitoring the expected service provisions of the staffs should be done on a  daily basis

Heizer, Jay. Operations Management, 11/e. Pearson Education India, 2016.

  1. I will monitor the following:
  • Monthly sales rate
  • New customer rates
  • Customer turnover rates
  • Engagement level of the customers
  • Average value of the orders

Beruvides, Gerardo, et al. “Sensoring systems and signal analysis to monitor tool wear in microdrilling operations on a sintered tungsten–copper composite material.” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 199 (2013): 165-175.

  1. The three ways to indentify quality problems with your service include monitoring the structure, process and outcome

Xu, Xiwei, et al. “Crying wolf and meaning it: Reducing false alarms in monitoring of sporadic operations through pod-monitor.” Proceedings of the First International Wo

  1. The four processes from your industry include- Diversity training, external training, external consultant, innovative organizational culture
  1. Open communication enables effective communication among all the departments of an organization including the top, middle and the lower level. Effective communication in turn will increase the profit of the company. Furthermore, innovative thinking and ideas could solve the most impossible problem. The creativity to think about better ways to do the company process will automatically lead to increase in the workplace productivity.

Eskenazi, Brenda, et al. “mSpray: A mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.” Environment international 68 (2014): 219-226.

  1. The three ways to identify current and emerging trends in the industry include:
  • By analyzing industry reports on research and trends.
  • By following the publications, prominent people and influencers present in the industry on a daily basis
  • Reading, listening and watching 

Kumar, Janaki. “Gamification at work: Designing engaging business software.” International Conference of Design, User Experience, and Usability. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.

  1. The two other areas of operational sustainability are Economic and Social resources

Epstein, Marc J., and Adriana Rejc Buhovac. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2014.

  1. The purpose of having a logical and well defined workflow include:
  • It saves time and energy
  • It makes the workflow more effective
  • It improves visibility

Ahmad, B., et al. “Samarang Integrated Operations (IO): Well Performance Workflows Enable Continuous Well Status and Performance Monitoring.” SPE Intelligent Energy Conference & Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014.

  1. The three business benefit of having an efficient and effective workflow include:
  • It enhances the internal communication within the workplace
  • The employees become more efficient in completing their work
  • The desired goal will be achieved
  1. The three more steps in delegating work tasks of the staffs include
  • Ask yourself how you can begin with delegating
  • Empower others at every stage through the principle of the completed staff works
  • Focus on the strength of every team members while delegating

Ellis, Peter, and Shirley Bach. Leadership, management and team working in nursing. Learning Matters, 2015.

  1. The three functions of the coaches or mentors include:
  • Providing constructive feedback
  • To make the people aware of all the happenings and internal issues within the workplace
  • To build relationship based on mutual trust and respect

Gopee, Neil. Mentoring and supervision in healthcare. Sage, 2015.

  1. The three other examples include:
  • Acting as both a leader and a manger at the same time
  • Setting goals for the team
  • Empowering each of the team members by providing them controlled discretion

Alred, Geof. Mentoring pocketbook. Management Pocketbooks, 2014.

  1. The two possible impacts implementing a new workflow includes:
  • New workflow many need new skilled employees with more innovative ideas and knowledge
  • Employee attrition
  1. The five aspects of staff behavior or productivity that you should monitor include:
  • Whether they are clear about their role and organizational goals
  • Are adequate material and time resources are available to the staffs
  • If there is any sort of alarming in the workload of the staffs
  • Whether the staffs are equipped with right tools
  • Employee discrimination should not take place within the work force

Shapiro, Sidney A. “Why Administrative Law Misunderstands How Government Works: The Missing Institutional Analysis.” Washburn LJ 53 (2013): 1.

  1. The four common signs that signifies that there may be some performance problems or issues you might need to deal with includes:
  • Poor work quality
  • Reduced productivity
  • Lack of results
  • Avoiding responsibility

DeMarco, Tom, and Tim Lister. Peopleware: productive projects and teams. Addison-Wesley, 2013.

  1. Sharing what you know to staff members ensures that the internal communication within the organization is effective. Effective internal communication will promote the sense of importance among the staffs and in turn will increase the productivity as well

Peltier, Thomas R. Information Security Policies, Procedures, and Standards: guidelines for effective information security management. CRC Press, 2016.

  1. In order to make sure that the brainstorming sessions are effective, one must need to ensure the following:
  • The best participants are participating in the brainstorming sessions
  • The problems are stated clearly in front of the participants
  • Each of the participants are contributing to the session

Bens, Ingrid. Facilitating with Ease!: core skills for facilitators, team leaders and members, managers, consultants, and trainers. John Wiley & Sons, 2017.

  1. The three types of administration documents or workplace records you might need to complete and submit in your industry include:
  • Transactional documents
  • Financial records
  • Minutes records (attendance, decisions made etc.)

Kavanagh, Michael J., and Richard D. Johnson, eds. Human resource information systems: Basics, applications, and future directions. Sage Publications, 2017.

  1. The five types of customer service related problem from your industry that would require your attention as a supervisor include:
  • Quality issue
  • Under delivering
  • Over promising
  • Taking too long to resolve a particular problem

Kobayashi, Iwao. 20 Keys to workplace improvement. Routledge, 2018.

  1. The five common management problems and issues that you as a supervisor may deal with on a regular basis include:
  • Poor communications in between various sections within the workplace
  • Poor morale among the employees
  • Constant change
  • There are many things to do but not enough time to do them.
  • Difficult staffs who do not do what is expected from them

Heizer, Jay. Operations Management, 11/e. Pearson Education India, 2016.

  1. In such case, I shall provide him with any of our contingency back-up for the time being.

Sittig, Dean F., Daniel Gonzalez, and Hardeep Singh. “Contingency planning for electronic health record-based care continuity: a survey of recommended practices.” International journal of medical informatics 83.11 (2014): 797-804.

  1. I will try to improve the CRM activities of the industry and will implement the system of online booking so that such cases could be avoided in the near future.

Harrigan, Paul, and Morgan Miles. “From e-CRM to s-CRM. Critical factors underpinning the social CRM activities of SMEs.” Small Enterprise Research 21.1 (2014): 99-116.

  1. The advantages of involving staff in the process of decision making includes:
  • This will build up trust and bring transparency in the workplace
  • Involving more minds will bring up more idea to the light and may improve the quality of decision made
  • It will help in building up more efficient employee relation

Fukuyama, Francis. State building: Governance and world order in the 21st century. Profile Books, 2017.

  1. The two questions that one could use to encourage the staff members in order to help them to solve the problem include:
  • How can this problem be solved according to you?
  • What reward you want to solve this problem?
  1. After each two to three weeks

Blankley, Richard T., et al. “A label-free selected reaction monitoring workflow identifies a subset of pregnancy specific glycoproteins as potential predictive markers of early-onset pre-eclampsia.” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 12.11 (2013): 3148-3159.

  1. The website that could be used as a reference is –

Monitoring Effectiveness of Training Programs

Unit name- Implement and monitor work health and safety practices

  1. The below are the three of the five situations under WHS legislation when a person conducting a business or undertaking must consult with the workers
  • While identifying hazards or assessing the rise of risks from the work
  • While proposing changes which might affect the workers’ health and safety.
  • While carrying out activities that are prescribed by the WHS regulation 2011.

Pagura, Ingrid. “Work Health and Safety Act 2011: do you know what this means for your workplace?.” Journal of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 19.2 (2013): 117.

  1. The fours ways by you can provide with workplace health and safety information are as follows:
  • By conducting meetings on WHS information
  • By providing them with hard copies of information on WHS
  • By making them aware of the WHS internet site and SafeWork NSW.
  • By sending them soft copies of the instructions through mails

Boschman, Julitta S., et al. “Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation.” BMC Public Health 13.1 (2013): 218.

  1. The four example of WHS procedure that might help to keep people safe includes:
  • Safe work practices
  • Accident and incident reporting
  • Security management of documents, cash, keys and equipments
  • Identification and reporting of hazards

Sergejeva, Marina, et al. “Anatomical landmarks for registration of experimental image data to volumetric rodent brain atlasing templates.” Journal of neuroscience methods240 (2015): 161-169.

  1. The two methods of monitoring that the staff are following the WHs procedures include:
  • A systematic record must be kept on work place safety audits, evacuation drills, and accident or injury reports, fire equipment audits.
  • Records of medical clearances and immunization status of every educator must be maintained

Jespersen, Anne Helbo, Pernille Hohnen, and Peter Hasle. “Internal audits of psychosocial risks at workplaces with certified OHS management systems.” Safety Science 84 (2016): 201-209.

  1. The five types of document that would act as evidence of your company’s compliance with the WHS include:
  • Consultation records
  • Fire equipment audits
  • Training action plans
  • Accident reports
  • Building and equipment maintenance records

Schofield, Toni, Belinda Reeve, and Ron McCallum. “Australian workplace health and safety regulatory approaches to prosecution: Hegemonising compliance.” Journal of Industrial Relations 56.5 (2014): 709-729.

  1. The four possible steps you could take if you observed a staff member not complying with the company’s WHS practices, or a hazard control measure was not working properly include:
  • I would have arrange a meeting with the staff in order to discuss the alleged misconduct
  • I shall allow him to respond to the allegations and ask him to explain the reason for his action
  • I shall try to make him understand that how risky it could be if he continue the act of not complying with the company’s WHS practices
  • I would ask the senior manager to take necessary action

Australia, Safe Work. “Preventing and responding to workplace bullying: Draft code of practice.” (2013).

  1. The 5 issues or potential hazards you need to monitor in your department on a daily basis include:
  • Electrical equipments
  • Flooring
  • Noise levels
  • Machinery
  • Customer behavior

Vincent, Charles, Susan Burnett, and Jane Carthey. “Safety measurement and monitoring in healthcare: a framework to guide clinical teams and healthcare organisations in maintaining safety.” BMJ Qual Saf 23.8 (2014): 670-677.

  1. The three matters you might discuss as part of making the consultation arrangements include:
  • How the work could be done safely
  • About making decisions regarding health and safety procedure during working
  • Proposing any kind of changes that could affect the health and safety of the workers

Seidman, Irving. Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press, 2013.

  1. The three methods you can use to provide staff members the opportunity to contribute their views on WHS issues include:
  • Use of suggestion box to present their views and suggestions
  • WHS discussions with the staffs at the course of every business day
  • Special staff meetings

Townsend, Keith, Adrian Wilkinson, and John Burgess. “Filling the gaps: Patterns of formal and informal participation.” Economic and Industrial Democracy 34.2 (2013): 337-354.

  1. At first I will go to the supervisor of the concerned area. If he cannot help me out in resolving the issue, then I would refer about the same to the senior manager and then to the faculty health and safety committee.
  2. It is important to communicate the result of the issue back the staff member who have raised it in order to thrive good communication and a working culture where the line of managers have positive attitudes regarding concerns. This makes the employees feel that their problems are been taken into account and they feel comfortable and safe working in such a environment where their voices are being heard.

Fearn-Banks, Kathleen. Crisis communications: A casebook approach. Routledge, 2016.

  1. The five instances when this needs to occur in an organization include:
  • When there is an uncertainty about how hazard might result in illness or injury
  • When changes at the workplace takes place that may have an impact on the effectiveness of control measures
  • When the work activity involves different hazards and there is a lack of understanding regarding how hazards might interact with each other to produce new and greater risks
  • For high risk activities like live electrical work, diving work and entry into restricted places
  • For some hazards that have high exposure standards like airborne or noise contaminants.

Mahdevari, Satar, Kourosh Shahriar, and Akbar Esfahanipour. “Human health and safety risks management in underground coal mines using fuzzy TOPSIS.” Science of the Total Environment 488 (2014): 85-99.

  1. The four different types of WHS training methods include:
  • Regular refresher training
  • Induction training
  • Online training
  • Coaching or mentoring

Smith, Erica, et al. “Continuity and Change: Employers’ Training Practices and Partnerships with Training Providers. Research Report.” National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) (2017).


  1. WHS training must be provided to the staffs
  • When they start working for the company
  • Before using any kind of potentially dangerous materials or equipments

Semple, Anne-Louise, et al. “Building a community of ethical practice through PACE.” Learning Through Community Engagement. Springer, Singapore, 2017. 215-229.

  1. The four examples of training you might organize with a specialist WHS training provider include:
  • Risk management training
  • Refresher training
  • Training that are given to the staffs before they start using any kind of potentially dangerous materials or equipments
  • Training on confined or restricted space entry


  1. The three reasons for monitoring the effectiveness of training programs include:
  • To make sure that the training program has shed a positive impact in minimizing or eliminating the risk
  • To make sure that all the staffs are successfully made aware of their Work Health and Safety responsibilities
  • To improve and maintain the organizational efficiency and effectiveness.
  • In order to provide further refresher training when required

Fleck, Steven J., and William Kraemer. Designing Resistance Training Programs, 4E. Human Kinetics, 2014.

  1. SDS or Safety Data Sheets must be stored by means of hard copies (paper copies) or electronically I computer storage.

Friis, Ulrik F., et al. “Difficulties in using Material Safety Data Sheets to analyse occupational exposures to contact allergens.” Contact dermatitis 72.3 (2015): 147-153.

  1. The five pieces of in formations that you can find on an SDS include:
  • Disposal consideration
  • First aid measures
  • Hazards identification
  • Fire-fighting measures
  • Ecological information

Suleiman, Abdulqadir, and Kristin Svendsen. “Are safety data sheets for cleaning products used in Norway a factor contributing to the risk of workers exposure to chemicals?.” International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health 27.5 (2014): 840-853.

  1.  The four pieces of information that should be recorded as a training record for a staff member who has undertaken WHS training include:
  • Name of the staff who was trained
  • Job title of the staff
  • Reason for training
  • Duration of training

Smith, Erica, et al. “Continuity and Change: Employers’ Training Practices and Partnerships with Training Providers. Research Report.” National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) (2017).

  1. The environmental impacts of storing documents and files in the workplace can be minimized by:
  • Reducing the use of papers for documentations.
  • By increasing the use of double sided copying or duplexing
  • Reusing paper
  • Use of e-mails in order to share ideas and documents
  • Making use of reusable intra and inter office envelopes

Rueben, Steven L., and Gabriel Jakobson. “Document revisions in a collaborative computing environment.” U.S. Patent No. 8,566,301. 22 Oct. 2013.

  1. To reduce workplace hazards

Implementing and Monitoring Work Health and Safety Practices

Bahn, Susanne. “Workplace hazard identification and management: The case of an underground mining operation.” Safety science 57 (2013): 129-137.

  1. Yes, in this case they have failed to meet their legal requirements, as under the WHS act, it is been clearly stated that a Person conducting a business or undertaking at a workplace must set up an HSC for the workplace within two months of being requested to do so by an HSR for the workplace, or by five or more workers at the workplace.

Blumenthal, Karen J., et al. “Medicaid incentive programs to encourage healthy behavior show mixed results to date and should be studied and improved.” Health Affairs 32.3 (2013): 497-507.

  1. No, in this case they have failed to meet their legal requirements, as under the WHS act, it is been clearly stated that it is important for the part of the WHS committee to take necessary action within the time but not for the part of employer

Idubor, Enaruna Ehimwenma, and Michael D. Oisamoje. “An exploration of health and safety management issues in Nigeria’s effort to industrialize.” European Scientific Journal, ESJ 9.12 (2013).

  1. The role of the WHS committee includes:
  • To facilitate co-operation between an employer and the employees of the employer in instigating, developing, and carrying out measures designed to ensure the health and safety at work of the employees
  • To formulate, review and disseminate (in such languages as are appropriate) to the employees, the standards, rules and procedures relating to health and safety which are to be carried out or complied with at the workplace

Leung, Mei-Yung, Qi Liang, and Paul Olomolaiye. “Impact of job stressors and stress on the safety behavior and accidents of construction workers.” Journal of Management in Engineering 32.1 (2015): 04015019.

  1. The two penalties that a judge may impose on you if you fail to meet your duties under the WHS act include:
  • In case of industrial manslaughter offence, penalty of about twenty years imprisonment for a person and of 10,000,000 dollars for body corporate is imposed by the judge
  • In case of failure in complying with WHS duty or any kind of electrical safety duty which exposes an individual to the risk of any kind of serious injury,  death or illness; penalty of up to 1.5 million dollars for corporation, up to 300,000 dollars for an individual as PCBU and up to 150,000 dollars for an individual.

Regan, Laura, and Matthew Giles. “Queensland set for WHS crackdown: Hefty penalties likely under harmonised legislation.” Proctor, The 37.6 (2017): 28.

Food waste is seen a lot in the commercial kitchens as they have many stations which focus on distinct types of food. It is to be noted that food was costs about 2,200 to 3,800 dollars in a year. With the same, the environmental impact of these food wastes is also very significant and it is estimated that about 7.6 million tons of green house gas emissions were released into the environment because of sending food waste into the landfills or lowlands in the year between 2014 and 2015.

Pirani, Sanaa I., and Hassan A. Arafat. “Reduction of food waste generation in the hospitality industry.” Journal of cleaner production 132 (2016): 129-145.

  1. Contaminated food is a store house of harmful bacteria and these bacteria keeps on multiplying if necessary actions are not taking. Foods need to be protected from contamination because contaminated food items from objects, pests, people, chemicals etc may cause serious health issues and illness. It is very important as it is a legal requirement that all the food providers, while receiving, storing and displaying food takes up all the possible steps in order to protect the foods from contamination.

Hayes, P. R., and Steve J. Forsythe. Food hygiene, microbiology and HACCP. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

  1. The different types of food contamination include: biological contamination, chemical contamination, physical contamination and cross contamination.

Biological contamination takes place when the toxins or bacteria like salmonella, listeria and staphylococcus contaminate food. It is the most common cause of food spoilage or food poisoning, which are caused when the harmful bacteria (pathogens), are spread to the food and then are consumed.

Chemical contamination is caused when the food products come into the contact of chemicals. This then lead to chemical food poisoning. Some of its sources may include agents for cleaning kitchen, unwashed fruits and vegetables, pest controlling products or agents, food containers that are made from non-safe plastics, chemical that are used in the maintenance of equipments etc.

Physical contamination is caused when the actual objects contaminates the food. Physically contaminated foods are also sometimes called as biologically contaminated food. This is because they might harbor some harmful and dangerous bacteria like fingernail. Some common sources of such contamination include- glass, hair, metal, jeweler, pests, fingernails or dirt.

Cross contamination takes place when the bacteria are transported from object to object. Some of the sources of cross contamination include dirty clothes, utensils, and pests like cockroaches’ flies etc, raw food storage, waste control and poor personal hygiene.

The Impact of Food Waste on Environment

World Health Organization. “Food Safety: What you should know.” (2015).

Lee, Yoonjin. “An evaluation of microbial and chemical contamination sources related to the deterioration of tap water quality in the household water supply system.” International journal of environmental research and public health 10.9 (2013): 4143-4160.

Food vehicle: Checking that the food delivery vehicle is appropriate for the transport of the food. The food vehicle must be clean and weatherproof. The temperature of the vehicle must be appropriate. For chilled food, it must be 18degree centigrade or below that; whereas for frozen food, the temperature must be 0 to 5 degree centigrade. With the same, it should also be checked whether the raw and the cooked food are kept separated in the van.

Delivery man- Thee deliver man must behave in a hygienic way and he must wear proper protective clothing.

Delivery temperature- Thermocouple must be used in order to measure the delivery temperature of the food.

Food packaging- The packaging of the food must be undamaged. In case if it is damage, it must be rejected immediately.

Product- It must be ensured that the food is in good condition and is free from contamination. If it is a pre-packed product, then the ‘best before’ date must be checked and it should be appropriate.  

Infestations- There must be no evidence of infestations.

Davis, J. G., and P. Kendall. “Food Safety.” (2014).

Hayes, P. R., and Steve J. Forsythe. Food hygiene, microbiology and HACCP. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

  1. Storage areas that must be prepared prior to storing the following food items following a delivery are as follows:

Vegetables- The winter season crops must be stored at 32 to 35 degree Fahrenheit and the summer season crops should be stored at 45 to 55 degree Fahrenheit.

Beverages- Beer ( 40 to 42 degree Fahrenheit), Wine (60 degree Fahrenheit), Tea (185 degree Fahrenheit), Milk (33 to 35 degree Fahrenheit), soda (38 degree Fahrenheit), Coffee (205 degree Fahrenheit)

Dairy products- The dairy products must be stored at the refrigerated temperatures in between 34 to 38 degree Fahrenheit.

Canned products- Below the temperature of 100 degree Fahrenheit

Dry goods- The dry goods must be kept in between 50 to 70 degree Fahrenheit.

Cooked foods-Hot cooked foods must be kept at 140 degree Fahrenheit or above 63 degree centigrade.

Frozen goods- The frozen must be best if they are kept at the temperature between -10 to -20 degree Fahrenheit.

Fruit- Fruits must be stored in between the temperature of 35 degree Fahrenheit to 40 degree Fahrenheit.

Biological Contamination in Food

Meat- the ideal temperature for meat storage is 33 to 36 degree Fahrenheit.

Oils- Oils must be kept at 57 to 59 degree Fahrenheit. If they are kept below these point, they may solidify.

Poultry- Uncooked poultry must be kept at refrigeration i.e., maximum of 4 degree centigrade.

Seafood- Seafood must be kept at 40 degree Fahrenheit or lower than that, but never higher than the prescribed temperature.

Vacuumed sealed fruit- They must be refrigerated to 30 to 40 degree Fahrenheit. However, in order to store it for longer number of days, they must be kept in freezer which is set to 0 degree Fahrenheit or below that.

Preparation of storage areas- The stores must be well ventilated and clean, along with good pest-proof area and good lighting for the storage of vegetables. Canned product must not be kept in light as light may cause discoloration and nutrient losses in the foods that are canned in glass jars. The storage area for storing beverage must have lock system to avoid thieving. The place where the beverages are to be kept, secured from other members. The storage area must be kept cool, dry and well-lighted. For dairy products, clean, dry and cool place is required, as they get spoiled when kept in room temperature for a long period of time. The canned products must be kept in cool, dry and clean place with temperature less than 85 degree Fahrenheit but no in freezing temperature.  The stores for dry goods must be kept, dry, clean and cool. They must be bright and the containers must be cleaned and covered. The store must be free from infestation by insects and rodents as well.

Vaclavik, Vickie A., and Elizabeth W. Christian. “Food Safety.” Essentials of Food Science. Springer, New York, NY, 2014. 393-434.

Girma, K., Z. Tilahun, and D. Haimanot. “Review on milk safety with emphasis on its public health.” World J Dairy Food Sci 9.2 (2014): 166-83

Eriksson, Mattias, Ingrid Strid, and Per-Anders Hansson. “Food waste reduction in supermarkets–Net costs and benefits of reduced storage temperature.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling 107 (2016): 73-81.

Vieira, Ernest R. Elementary food science. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Gertzou, Ioanna N., et al. “Effect of combination of ozonation and vacuum packaging on shelf life extension of fresh chicken legs during storage under refrigeration.” Journal of Food Engineering 213 (2017): 18-26.

Jacobes, Morris B. The chemical analysis of foods and food products. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company; New York; Cincinnati; Toronto; Lndon; Melbourne, 2013.1

  1. If a delivery does not meet the required specifications or legislative temperature r is spoilt or contaminated, it must be rejected immediately. It should not be accepted by any means and then a complaint should be made to the food authority and they must be informed about the action.

Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino, et al. “The challenge of challenge testing to monitor Listeria monocytogenes growth on ready-to-eat foods in Europe by following the European Commission (2014) Technical Guidance document.” Food Research International 75 (2015): 233-243.

  1. Humidity and ventilation requirements for the followings are:

Dry Storage

  • Keep the dry storage areas neat and clean with ample ventilation in order to control the humidity and prevent the development of bacteria and mold in the food products
  • Store the dry foods at the temperature of 50 degree Fahrenheit for maximizing the shelf life of the food. However, maintaining a 70 degree Fahrenheit is sufficient for the dry storage of most of the products.  
  • Keep a thermometer on walls of the dry store area
  • Check the room temperature on a regular basis
  • Store the foods away from light and heat sources that may decrease the shelf life of it
  • Always store the food off the floor and the walls in order to allow for sufficient air circulation
  • The humidity level must be of 15 percent or less.

Cool room

  • Maintain the cool room temperature at 39 degree Fahrenheit or less than that. The potentially hazardous products must be kept at 41 degree Fahrenheit or 5 degree Celsius in order to prevent the development of bacteria.
  • Keep the room closed as much as possible.
  • Do not keep much hot products in the room
  • A good air circulation is also very necessary


Freezers are to be used when frozen food is received. Humidity and ventilation requirement for freezers are:

  • Maintain the freezer storage space at 0 degree Fahrenheit
  • Make the thermometers easily readable, observable as well as accurate +3 degree Fahrenheit.
  • Make sure that the freezer has sufficient open and slotted shelving in order to allow air circulation around the walls and shelves in order to maintain an adequate food temperature.
  • Make sure that the doors are closed tightly and are nicely sealed in order to prevent heat from gaining.
  • Do not overload the freezers

The requirements for documentation and monitoring includes

  • Training undertaken
  • Daily records
  • Reports on visual inspection
  • Records of team meeting
  • Verification procedures
  • Records of processing
  • Analysis of training needs
  • Detail of hazard analysis

Kreibich, Heloisa H., Elisa H. Moecke, and Vildes M. Scussel. “Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Beans Processing and Storage Conditions Control for Safe Chocolate Products.” Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences (JCBPS) 6.2 (2016): 513.

Wood, Ian, and Edward Hammond. “Refrigerated display appliances.” U.S. Patent No. 9,265,359. 23 Feb. 2016.

Harris, Frank, and Ronald McCaffer. Modern construction management. John Wiley & Sons, 2013.

  1. The food law needs the implementation of the principles of HACCP that include:
  • Regular inspection and monitoring for the signs of pests and other situations which may contribute to the increase of risk of pest infestation
  • Keeping the records of the incidences of the pests and the measures that are used in order to prevent or monitor and control the pests.
  • Actions taken to control the pests and remove the source of the risk of infestations

Mortimore, Sara, and Carol Wallace. “Prerequisites for Food Safety: PRPs and Operational PRPs.” HACCP. Springer US, 2013. 113-154.

The fresh, frozen and dry goods must be kept in cool, clean and dry places. The area must be free from dampness and must be well ventilated as well. The storage place must be bright enough and the food must always be kept in shelf and off from the floors. Furthermore, the shelves, where they are to be kept must be made from non absorbent, easy to clean materials. Along with these, it must also be ensured that the windows in the store rooms must be fitted with flies or insect screens as well as the stores should always be kept free from rodents and insects. The fresh foods must be inspected in a timely manner. Fresh products such as salads should be stored in the fridge. The stores of the vegetables must be well cleaned and hygienic. With the same, the outer packaging of the fresh food products must always be removed before storing them. It must be noted that the fresh foods always require good air circulation in order to remain fresh and consumable. The frozen foods must be kept at refrigerator and double stacking should be avoided in every circumstances. The stores of refrigeration must be maintained at 0 to 5 degree centigrade. The ready to eat and the cooked foods must not be stored in same fridge until and unless they are nicely covered in order to prevent them from cross-contamination. The stores of the fridge must always be kept defrosted and clean daily. The doors of the refrigerator should always be kept closed. The frozen fishes and meats must be defrosted slowly. 

Moerman, Frank, and Patrick C. Wouters. “Hygiene Concepts for Food Factory Design.” Innovation and Future Trends in Food Manufacturing and Supply Chain Technologies. 2016. 81-133.

Yildiz, Fatih. “Initial preparation, handling, and distribution of minimally processed refrigerated fruits and vegetables.” Minimally processed refrigerated fruits and vegetables. Springer, Boston, MA, 2017. 53-92.

  1. The labeling and coding requirements for food items include:
  • The name of the food (legal name, descriptive name and customary name)
  • List of ingredients
  • The quality of the certain ingredients or QUID
  • The instructions for using the item (if required)
  • Durability date (The ‘best before date’ or the ‘use by’ dates)
  • Instructions for special storage
  • The name and the address of the business, packer, manufacturer or seller
  • The place of the origin or the provenance (if implicit)
  • Warnings about the ingredients that may cause allergy reactions in an individual.
  • Bar codes

The bar code labels helps in keeping the overall process running efficiently and effectively by enabling the end users of the products to scan the barcode label of the item as it is taken out from the shelf. This then helps in updating the FIFO procedures and in keeping the queue and operations running smoothly

Frye, Cary P., and Arun Kilara. “Regulations for product standards and labeling.” Dairy Processing and Quality Assurance (2015): 152.

  1. Stock rotation is done so that the oldest product is used first and to avoid wastage and spoiling of the product. It is very important in every areas including warehouse, factory. The reason behind this is to minimize the losses from obsolescence and deterioration. With the same, stock rotation ensures that the food is used within the date and it also prevents unwanted and expensive food waste. It must be applied to all the food products especially to the high-risked ones.

Jacobes, Morris B. The chemical analysis of foods and food products. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company; New York; Cincinnati; Toronto; Lndon; Melbourne, 2013.1

  1. High pressure washing will be best for cleaning walls, floors and other large equipments in the storage areas. Sanitizing must be done with chemicals and heat. Quats are considered as one of the most excellent environmental sanitizers, it can be used as a sanitizer for walls, floors and other equipments. With the same, they are non-corrosive as well. Cleaning must be done regularly and that too with proper sanitizing methods. The walls and the shelves must also be cleaned on a daily basis. Although in case of walls and shelves, regular cleaning with sanitizers is not required. Sanitizing them after every one or two day is enough. The shelves must be regularly cleaned with neat and dry clothes. Some  recommendations are as follows:
  • Never mix the chemicals together for cleaning.
  • Follow the instruction of the manufacture before cleaning
  • Ensure that all the tops are secured and the containers are kept clean.
  • Use the cleaning chemicals in well-ventilated region

Pedlar, Roger, et al. “Floor treatment apparatus.” U.S. Patent No. 8,438,685. 14 May 2013.

  1. The seven examples of indicators that can be used to identify whether the stock is spoiled or contaminated are:
  • Unpleasant odor
  • Change in texture
  • Change in color and occurrence of moulds
  • Undesirable taste
  • Food is softer than the normal (sliminess)
  • Souring
  • Formation of gas

Abdel-Aziz, Shadia M., et al. “Microbial food spoilage: control strategies for shelf life extension.” Microbes in Food and Health. Springer, Cham, 2016. 239-264.

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