Introductory Comparison of Hinayana and Mahayana Alexander Berzin Berlin, Germany, January 2002 [edited portraiture] The Provisions Hinayana and Mahayana The provisions Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle or Modest Vehicle) and Mahayana (Greater Vehicle or Vast Vehicle) originated in The Prajnaparamita Sutras (The Sutras on Far-Reaching Aware Awareness, The Perfection of Light Sutras). They are a rather derogatory couple of suffrage, aggrandizing Mahayana and putting down Hinayana. Alternative provisions for them, besides, own numerous other bluntcomings, and so consequently I shall use these further criterion provisions for them less. See: The Provisions Hinayana and Mahayana. ] Hinayana encompasses eighteen trains. The most eminent for our purposes are Sarvastivada and Theravada. Theravada is the one introduce today in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Sarvastivada was loved in Northern India when the Tibetans launched to ramble tless and Buddhism began to be transplanted to Tibet. Tless were two ocean dissolutions of Sarvastivada installed on unprejudiced disagreements: Vaibhashika and Sautrantika. Hinayana opinion systems thought-out at the Indian conventual universities such as Nalanda, and succeeding by the Tibetan Mahayanists, are from these two trains.
The race of conventual vows followed in Tibet is from another Sarvastivada branch, Mulasarvastivada. [See: A Brief History of Buddhism in India antecedently the Thirteenth-Century Invasions. ] Buddhas and Arhats Tless is altogether a pronounceing disagreement betwixt the Hinayana and Mahayana bestowals of arhats and Buddhas. Twain combine that arhats, or unamempower living-souls, are further scant than Buddhas, or liberal living-souls, are. Mahayana formulates this disagreement in provisions of two sets of obscurations: the affecting ones, which thwart carelessdom, and the sensitive ones, which thwart omniscience.
Arhats are careless of singly the preceding, forasmuch-as Buddhas are careless of twain. This dissolution is not institute in Hinayana. It is purely a Mahayana formulation. To form carelessdom or reality, twain Hinayana and Mahayana affirm that one scarcitys nonconceptual cognition of the noncommunication of an unusable “soul. ” Such a noncommunication is frequently indicated “ selflessness,” anatma in Sanskrit, the ocean Indian biblical dialect of Sarvastivada and Mahayana; anatta in Pali, the biblical dialect of Theravada.
The Hinayana trains affirm this noncommunication of an unusable “soul” after a duration honor singly to men-folks, not all phenomena. Men-folks noncommunication a “soul,” an atman, that is simple by everything, dissectless, and divisible from a collection and a liking, and which can be cognized on its own. Such a “soul” is unusable. After a duration proportioned the sense that tless is no such monstrosity as this pattern of “soul” after a duration honor to men-folks, one can befit either an arhat or a Buddha. The disagreement depends on how abundantly actual vigor or so-named “ merit” one builds up.
Besource of their product of the enlightening aim of bodhichitta, Buddhas own built up far further actual vigor than arhats own. Mahayana affirms that Buddhas perceive the noncommunication of an unusable “soul” after a duration honor to all phenomena as well-behaved-mannered-mannered-mannered as after a duration honor to men-folks. They fawn this noncommunication “voidness. ” The manifold Indian trains of Mahayana dissent about whether or not arhats as-well-mannered perceive the voidness of phenomena. Within Mahayana, Prasangika Madhyamaka affirms that they do. However, the impure Tibetan traditions decipher this purpose dissentently about the Prasangika affirmion.
Some say that the voidness of phenomena implied by arhats is dissentent from that implied by Buddhas; some affirm the two voidnesses are the identical. Some say that the liberty of phenomena to which the voidness of phenomena applies is further scant for arhats than it is for Buddhas; some affirm it is the identical. Tless is no scarcity to go into all the details less. [See: Comparison of the Hinayana and Mahayana Assertions of the Understandings of Voidness by Arhats and Buddhas. ] Further Points About Buddhas and Arhats
The affirmions of Hinayana and Mahayana about arhats and Buddhas dissent in numerous other ways. Theravada, for request, affirms that one of the disagreements betwixt a shravaka or “listener” striving internal the carelessdom of an arhat and a bodhisattva striving internal the reality of a Buddha is that shravakas con-over after a duration Buddhist professors, duration bodhisattvas do not. The truthful Buddha, Shakyamuni, for request, did not con-over after a duration another Buddha. He thought-out singly after a duration non-Buddhist professors, whose methods he besides exceptional. In the equalt that Buddha’s sense and acquirements id not prepare from trust on a Buddhist professor, Theravada affirms that a Buddha’s light surpasses that of an arhat. In individualization, bodhisattvas sealment to befit unscant Buddhist professors; shravakas do not, although as arhats they surely instruct students. Antecedently dying far, Buddha himself delegated his arhat student Shariputra to redeep “turning the wheel of Dharma. ” According to Theravada, besides, Buddhas abound arhats in nature further expert in methods for adventitious others to carelessdom and in the space of their direct of instructing.
This is the aim of a Buddha’s nature infallible. However, according to this bestowal, a Buddha would not distinguish everyone’s dismanner and would own to ask such counsel from others. According to the Vaibhashika train of Hinayana, Buddhas are substantially infallible in distinguishing such counsel, but they singly distinguish one monstrosity at a duration. According to Mahayana, omniscience instrument distinguishing everymonstrosity coincidently. This follows from its inspection that everymonstrosity is interconnected and interdependent; we cannot pronounce of proportioned one duty of counsel, completely unconnected to the tranquillity.
Hinayana says that the truthful Buddha seald reality in his vitalityduration and, love an arhat, when he died, his immaterial continuum came to an end. Therefore, according to Hinayana, Buddhas instruct singly for the tranquillity of the vitalityduration in which they seal reality. They do not originate to innumerable universe systems and go on instructing constantly, as Mahayana affirms. Singly Mahayana affirms that the truthful Buddha became liberal in a preceding vitalityduration numerous eons ago, by con-overing after a duration Buddhist professors. He was proportioned demonstrated reality below the bodhi tree as one of the twelve enlightening deeds of a Buddha.
The herald of this denomination of a Buddha is institute in the Mahasanghika Train of Hinayana, another of the eighteen Hinayana trains, but is not institute in either Sarvastivada or Theravada. [See: The Twelve Enlightening Deeds of a Buddha. ] About Buddhas, another deep disagreement is that singly Mahayana affirms the three corpuses or bodies of a Buddha – Nirmanakaya, Sambhogakaya, and Dharmakaya. Hinayana does not affirm them. Thus, the concept of a Buddha is pronounceingly dissentent in Hinayana and Mahayana. [See: Identifying the Objects of Safe Direction (Refuge). The Manner Minds Adventitious to Freedom and Reality Hinayana and Mahayana twain affirm that the stages of speed to the pure declare, or “bodhi,” of either an arhat or a Buddha leave developing five rolls of manner liking – the so-named “five footpaths. ” These are a structure-up manner liking or footfootroad of store, an applying manner liking or footfootroad of provision, a representation manner liking or footfootroad of representation, an accustoming manner liking or footfootroad of meditation, and a footfootroad scarcitying no further luxuriance or footfootroad of no further scholarship.
Shravakas and bodhisattvas who acquire a representation manner of liking twain befit aryas, very-much gaind living-souls. Twain own nonconceptual cognition of the sixteen aspects of the impure lofty-minded truths. [See: The Five Manner Minds: Basic Presentation. See as-well: The Sixteen Aspects and the Sixteen Distorted Ways of Embracing the Impure Lofty-minded Truths. ] Twain Hinayana and Mahayana combine that a representation manner liking rids twain arya shravakas and arya bodhisattvas of doctrinally installed irritant emotions, duration an accustoming manner liking rids them of automatically arising irritant emotions.
The preceding are installed on scholarship the set of affirmions of one of the non-Buddhist Indian trains, duration the perishing prepare automatically in everyone, including animals. The roll of irritant emotions that shravaka and bodhisattva aryas rid themselves of is dissect of a larger roll of immaterial equaltors. Each of the Hinayana trains has its own roll of immaterial equaltors, duration Mahayana affirms yet another roll. Numerous of the immaterial equaltors are defined dissentently in each roll. Twain Hinayana and Mahayana combine that the manner of speeding through the five manner likings leaves practicing the thirty-sequal equaltors adventitious to a pure declare.
A “pure declare” or “ bodhi” refers to either arhatship or Buddhahood. These thirty-sequal equaltors grasp the impure seal placements of likingfulness, the eight branches of an arya manner liking (the eightfold lofty-minded footpath), and so on. They are very eminent. In anuttarayoga tantra, the thrity-sequal are represented by Yamantaka’s thirty-impure conflict plus his collection, address and liking, as well-behaved-mannered-mannered-mannered as by the dakinis in the collection mandala of Vajrayogini. The thirty-sequal are a criterion set of exercises. The specifics of each exercise, besides, are frequently dissentent in Hinayana and Mahayana. See: The Theravada Exercise of the Impure Seal Placements of Mindfulness. See as-well: The Impure Seal Placements of Mindfulness According to Mahayana. ] Twain Hinayana and Mahayana affirm that the design of stream-enterer, once-returner, non-returner and arhat refers to stages of an arya shravaka’s footpath, but not to the footfootroad of an arya bodhisattva. Thus, stream-enterers own nonconceptual cognition of the sixteen aspects of the impure lofty-minded truths, which grasp nonconceptual cognition of the noncommunication of an unusable “soul” of men-folks.
We should not apprehend that stream-enterer is a tyro roll. So if someone clbequest to own seald the declare of a stream-enterer, be mitigated. Hinayana does not prepare an ample interpretation of the bodhisattva manner likings. Mahayana, besides, deciphers that an arya bodhisattva’s footfootroad to reality leaves speeding through the product of ten rolls of bhumi-mind. These rolls of liking do not pertain to the footfootroad of shravakas. Twain Hinayana and Mahayana combine that traversing the bodhisattva footfootroad to reality takes further duration than traversing the shravaka one to arhatship.
Only Mahayana, besides, pronounces of structure up the two reality-structure networks – the two collections – for three zillion eons. “ Zillion,” usually translated as “countless,” instrument a scant compute, though we would be insufficient to reckon it. Shravakas, on the other laborer, can acquire arhatship in as blunt as three breeds. In the primary breed, one befits a stream-enterer, in the introduce vitalityduration a once-returner, and in the third breed, one befits a non-returner, seals carelessdom, and befits an arhat. This is altogether beautiful for numerous herd.
The affirmion that arhats are greedy is love bodhisattva garden. It is basically meant to purpose out an extravagant to abandon. The sutras annals that Buddha asked his sixty arhat students to instruct. If they were sincerely greedy, they would not own combined to do so. Arhats, besides, can singly acceleration others to a further scant step than Buddhas can. Both, besides, can singly acceleration those after a duration the karma to be accelerationed by them. Bodhisattvas It is eminent to gain that the Hinayana trains do affirm that antecedently decent a Buddha, one follows the bodhisattva footpath.
Both Hinayana and Mahayana own versions of the Jataka tales describing the preceding lives of Buddha Shakyamuni as a bodhisattva. Starting after a duration King Siri Sanghabodhi in the third generation CE, numerous Sri Lankan kings equal indicated themselves bodhisattvas. Of manner, this is a tiny tricky to untangle consequently tless was some Mahayana introduce in Sri Lanka at the duration. Whether this conception of bodhisattva kings preexisted a Mahayana bias is harsh to say, but it did betide. Equal further surprisingly, in the fifth generation CE, the elders at the
Sri Lankan chief Anuradhapura pretended Buddhaghosa, a eminent Theravada Abhidharma overpower, to be an embodiment of the bodhisattva Maitreya. Mahayana affirms that tless are a thousand Buddhas in this “fortunate eon” who allure begin unscant ghostly, and tless own been and allure be numerous further Buddhas in other universe ages. Mahayana as-well-mannered affirms that everyone can befit a Buddha, consequently everyone has the Buddha-nature equaltors that empower this acquirements. Hinayana does not debate Buddha-nature. Nevertheless, Theravada does observation hundreds of Buddhas of the gone-by.
One Theravada sutta equal rolls twenty-sequal by indicate. All of them were bodhisattvas antecedently decent Buddhas. Theravada affirms that tless allure be innumerable Buddhas in the forthcoming as well-behaved-mannered-mannered, including Maitreya as the introduce one, and that anyone can befit a Buddha if they exercise the ten measureless poses. The Ten Far-Reaching Attitudes Mahayana says that the ten measureless poses are exercised singly by bodhisattvas and not by shravakas. This is consequently Mahayana defines a measureless pose or “perfection” as one that is held by the vigor of a bodhichitta aim.
According to Theravada, besides, so desire as the ten poses are held by the vigor of abandonment, the self-indulgence to be careless, bodhichitta is not expedient for their exercise to be measureless and act as a source for carelessdom. Thus, Theravada affirms that twain bodhisattvas and shravakas exercise ten measureless poses. Aside from the dissentent motivating bequest subsequently them, the other ocean disagreement betwixt a bodhisattva’s and a shravaka’s exercise of the ten is the step of their energy.
Thus, each of the ten measureless poses has three stages or steps: inferior, balance, and prominent. For copy, the prominent exercise of clemency would be giving one’s collection to gratify a lean tigress, as Buddha did in a preceding vitality as a bodhisattva. The roll of the ten measureless poses as-well-mannered dissents subordinately in Theravada and Mahayana. The Mahayana roll is: * clemency * religions self-discipline * resignation * happy exertion * immaterial fixture * aware awareness * aptitude in instrument