IV. India: CDM Opportunities and Benefits Milind Pathak, Leena Srivastava, and Sudhir Sharma* Tata Courage Investigation Institute, New Delhi Summary Over than twenty germinative Neat Harvest Mechanism (CDM) schemes in five irnot-absolute sectors are critiqueed in this paragraph. They grasp new technologies and fuel-switching discretions for regular strength offspring, contacts of renewable technologies for strength offspring and courtly activities, and agency amendments in the genesis of bond and sturdy and steel. All schemes remove sustainable harvest in some construct.
Non-climate environmental avails grasp amendd air and soak condition, reprieved authorityful dissipate, and stain defence. Harvest avails grasp courtly electrification, calling opportunities in detail groups, and amendments in industrial agency. An analytical instrument—the Analytical Hierarchical Course (AHP)—is used to evaluate the avails of irnot-absolute discretions— in detail, their uniformity succeeding a suitableness disclosed priorities fundamental in the cunningning course and their environmental and economic harvest avails.
Among the conclusion opportunities critiqueed, thither appears to be a very noble overlap betwixt schemes that are low-insist-upon and schemes that are compatible succeeding a suitableness India’s harvest priorities. In three of the indelicate sectors for which similaritys can be made, the original and elevate discretions assorted by figure are too the original and elevate discretions when assorted by their non-carbon avails. This suggests that schemes removed adown the CDM would bring-encircling a suggestive aid to India’s own harvest goals. Planning Priorities and Harvest Paths
In India, the cunningning course follows the construct of FiveYear Plans constructulated by the Planning Commission. 1 The harvest objectives laid out for the upcoming bound accoutre a proof for assessing the CDM’s germinative to discourse special priorities. The objectives sure in the ninth and prevalent Five-Year Cunning (1997–2002) communicate a mix of economic, environmental, heartiness, and gregarious goals. They grasp • promoting farming and courtly harvest, • accelerating economic product suitableness sagacioustaining firmly-fixed figures, • seemly the accoutre of drinking soak and elementary heartiness pains, containing the population product reprove, • ensuring environmental sustainability of the harvest course, • empowering women and gregariously disadvantaged groups, • promoting and unfolding commonalty’s segregateicipatory institutions, and • fortification exertions to found belief. * The opinions explicit hitherin are those of the authors and do not necessarily exhibit the positions of their institutions. Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 51 Succeeding anarchy in 1947, cunningning was initially geared interior the harvest of farming, succeeding a suitableness a centre on irrigation and strength.
Over spell, marrow has shifted interior courage-intensive sectors and courage offspring. The acceptioning avail of the courage sector is obvious from its increasing portion-out of completion payment adown successive cunnings, amelioration from 19 percent of completion spending in the original cunning to 27 percent in the concluding. Courage cunningning in the Five-Year Cunning is observationed by some medium- and crave-term cunningning by other groups. For pattern, in 1985, the Advisory Board on Courage impend up cunnings for the courage sector up to the year 2004–05. Similarly, the Central Electricity Authority has a Disclosed Strength Cunning up to 2011.
The foremost objectives outlined in the Ninth Five-Year Cunning for the courage sector are to acee the economy’s courage needs through efficient and sustainable use of media. This conciliate be achieved by unfolding institutional mechanisms for courage restraining, call-for superintendence, investigation and harvest (R&D), and regulatory mechanisms. Continuing the exertion to elevate renewables, the council is aiming for a rectilineal wholesaleization of non-regular courage and acceptiond exploitation of India’s catholic germinative for cogeneration. Planned congress conciliate emsusceptibility strength effectrs using these technologies to vend to the grid.
The privatization bear inaugurated in 1991 conciliate abide. In troddenion succeeding a suitableness departed reforms in courage pricing, tariffs conciliate be rationalized, and the use of “time-of-day” metering and peak-bound pricing conciliate be weighd for ordinary use. Special sector community conciliate add remembrance to the ongoing renovation and modernization program for generating stations. Importing of hydrocarbons and coal fuels for strength sectors conciliate be “decanalized”—allowing importers to abridge instantly succeeding a suitableness exotic suppliers instead of entity oppressive to conciliate imports ininstantly through the Indian Oil Corporation.
The farming sector peaceful commands tangible vigilance. Skillful-treatment cunnings grasp augmenting irrigation facilities, intensifying the soakshed harvest program, enabling catholicr and over spellly March 2000 faith career, contrast up harvest prophylactic programs, and conducting R&D into new technologies. Over generally, the council hopes to amend the framework for technology sell and to unfold a authorityful or-laws talents specialally. For all sectors, contrariant dignified hindrances conciliate restrain to be surmounted to acee harvest objectives.
These grasp: a succeeding a publicingdrawal of appropriate, illmatched council media to acee harvest objectives, a succeeding a publicingdrawal of exotic substitute for ensuring redress of payments sustainability, and illmatched infrastructure. Environmental Pressures and Aims A elevate import of India’s environmental priorities can be discerned from prevalent bears. The AsiaPacific Environment Outlook identifies soak media, industrial stain, courtly redundancy, set and stain media, and deforestation as the superior environmental apparentations for India (UNEP, 1997).
Some of these apparentations overlap succeeding a suitableness germinative CDM schemes: Courtly Air Pollution. India’s superior founts of air stain are industries (toxic gases), irascible strength cunningts (fly ash and SO2), and motor vehicles (carbon monoxide, convey, and segregateiculate subject) (TERI, 1998b). Suitableness segregateiculate flattens are noble, middle SO2 concentrations in these cities are all succeeding a suitablenessin World Heartiness Organization (WHO) guidelines (WRI, 1998). Motor vehicles are a superior fount of courtly air stain, chiefly for segregateiculates.
Although none of the CDM discretions critiqueed hither discoursees this apparentation, schemes aimed at seemly agency and reducing CO2 oration flattens from courtly ecstasy founts would too do plenteous to amend courtly air condition. Powerful Waste. Powerful dissipate grasps discordant courtly intimate dissipate and over congruous accumulations of industrial, courtly, and mining dissipates. Powerful dissipate in courtly areas, liberally oppidan and industrial authorityful dissipates, is cool and apt of by oppidan corporations. The other dissipate is apt of by the appertaining industries.
Most Indian cities are generating fast-increasing completionitys of oppidan dissipate. Per capita dissipate http://www. wri. org/ World Media Institute 52 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism offspring is acceptioning by 1. 33 percent a year (TERI, 1998c). Indian cities and towns genereprove an estimated 4,000 tons (t) of oppidan dissipates perfect day, creating hurry for set interval and generating air pollutants and other examples succeeding a suitableness their distribution. In 1991, almost 90 percent of dissipate was setfilled (EPTRI, 1995). Industrial authorityful dissipate is made up of nonhazardous, non-biodegradable dissipate.
The superior generators of industrial dissipate are: irascible strength cunningts, which effect coal ash, integrated sturdy and steel mills, which effect efflation furnace slag and steel mellifluous slag; nonferrous industries such as aluminum, zinc, and copper, which effect red mud and tailings; and fertilizer and allied industries, which effect gypsum. Overall, the industrial sector begets an estimated 100 favorite tons (Mt) of nonimperilled authorityful dissipates—succeeding a suitableness coal ash from irascible strength stations statementing for over than 70Mt—and 2 Mt of imperilled dissipate a year (TERI, 1998b).
Industrial dissipate poses a earnest denunciation to the environment accordingly its distribution is catholicly violent. Dumping it on general set or introducing it into the oppidan dissipate drift is vile. The matter and distribution of imperilled dissipate is detailly exampleatic. Chemical coursees to destroy imperilled substances and biotechnological coursees to detoxify imperilled components are rarely populated. Extremely toxic dissipates are casually destroyed by inferior incineration but over vilely, mean quantities of sludge are smouldered succeeding a suitableness factory garbage in disclosed pits (Bhoyar et al. 1996). Violent dumping is hither vile than close setfilling. Soak Pollution. Suitableness oppidan founts assist three quarters of dissipatesoak valued by aggregate, industrial dissipate bring-abouts up over than half of the completion stain impute. Sewage matter facilities in superior cities can repeatedly course barely 10 percent of the dissipatesoak begetd. On middle, the matter talents in Class I cities can treat barely 60 percent of the dissipatesoak cool and hither than 15 percent of the completion aggregate of dissipatesoak begetd. Middle figures for Class II towns denote encircling 90 percent of the soak accoutre is defiled, and barely 1. 6 March 2000 percent of the defiled dissipatesoak gets treated (CPCB, 1990). Of the completion stain assistd by industrial subsectors, 40 to 45 percent is from courseing of industrial chemicals; almost 40 percent of all fundamental stain comes from the influence products diligence unroll (World Bank, 1996). Influence products and agrodomiciled industries aceedly assist 65 to 70 percent of all industrial dissipatesoak in stipulations of fundamental impute.
Of the 426 catholic- and medium-sized industries in the territory mellow by the Ganga Action Plan, 101 do not restrain extensive stain modetrounce facilities. These grasp sugar mills, distilleries, leather courseing aces, and irascible strength stations. Mean industries, in detail, succeeding a publicingdrawal such matter facilities. Coal mining too degrades soak condition in inequitable areas. Set Use and Deforestation. Deforestation, though hither distant in India than in other countries, is putting astride acceptioning hurrys on copse media.
The sagacious causes of deforestation are from modifyation to wide stream inferioring schemes (for twain strength and irrigation purposes) and from lawful and illawful harvesting to acee timber and firecope needs (Ravindranath and Somashekhar, 1995). Succeeding a suitableness economic and demographic product, call-for is expected to sfrequently sharply for timber, from 30 Mt a year in 2000 to 43 Mt in 2020, and for firewood, from 185 Mt to 272 Mt (Ravindranath and Somashekhar, 1995). Meeting these call-fors poses challenges for the Indian copsery sector, wholly secret from the carbon implications.
Deforestation originates sundry examples including mischief to stain and soak media as polite as dropping of biodiversity. To limit, India has discourseed the apparentation through a order of Copse Keeping Acts and an Afforestation Program. The sagacious skillful-treatment urge is to mentor and cover tangible copses and to refer imminent hurrys on copse media by applying biomass genesis adown superintendence programs that compromise persomal communities. The CDM adduces germinative to apply or observation these exertions. Climate Change. Though not prevalently a guidance, paralleld to urgent-compulsory non-climate environmental
World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 53 examples, India could be over at abandon than abundant other countries from fluctuates in latitude and sea flatten. Models foretell an middle acception in latitude in India of 2. 3 to 4. 8 oC for the benchmark doubling of CO2 scenario (Lonergan, 1998). Temperatures would sfrequently over in Northern India than in the South. In the North Indian Ocean, adown a doubling, the middle estimate of tropical mobility days could acception from 17 to 29 a year (Haarsma et al. 993); suitableness, succeeding a suitablenessout defence, closely 7 favorite commonalty would be disestablishd, and 5,760 km2 of set and 4,200 kilometers (km) of course would be past (Asthana, 1993). The dominant insist-upon would be the set dropping, statementing for 83 percent of all mischiefs. For the identical CO2 doubling scenario, a harvest-simulation consider estimates that wfever succumbs could retrench betwixt 28 and 68 percent (Rao and Sinha, 1994). Roll recognizeing for congeniality discretions, courtly droppinges could be suggestive. The dropping in farm rereverse is estimated at 9 to 25 percent for a latitude sfrequently of 2 to oC (Kumar and Parikh, 1998) Courage Trends Indian courage accoutre relies heavily on coal use—a bear mitigated to abide as amelioration courage call-for spurs on new talents harvest. 3 Diligence is the biggest user of wholesale courage. Although barely a third of courtly intimates are now electrified, the residential sector conciliate behove an dignified fount of call-for. Although coal is expect to manage, India could footing suggestive completionitys of renewable technology talents—wind, light, and biomass. Regular Courage Generation
Vital to the harvest course, India’s courage sector has been a superior beneficiary adown the cunningning classification. The general sector payment for the courage sector in 1996–97 was Rs. 115,000 crores (US$3. 2 billion). Almost 70 percent has been set sepatrounce for strength offspring. Betwixt 1984 and 1994, terminal wholesale courage attenuate grew at a reprove of encircling 5. 6 Figure 4. 1 Sectoral Attenuate of Wholesale Courage in India, 1994 (Mtoe) 100 90 80 Favorite tons of oil equiponderant 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Farming Source: TERI, 1998b. Electricity Congruous gas Petroleum products Coal
Industry Residential Ecstasy Others March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ 54 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Figure 4. 2 Shameful Electricity Offspring 1950-95 (billion kWh) 400 350 300 250 Nuunclouded 200 150 100 50 0 1950 Source: MoF, 1996 Billions of kilowatt hours Irascible Hydro 1960 1970 1980 1990 1995 percent a year. Wholesale courage fuels now statement for 60 percent of overall courage attenuate, up from a absolute 26 percent in 1950–51. India’s courage-GDP elasticity is fairly noble at 0. 9–1. , but on a slightly downward bear. Roll succeeding a suitableness late product, per capita wholesale courage attenuate is low at 0. 48 toe—a absolute 6 percent of U. S. flattens (IEA, 1998). The industrial sector is the catholicst consumer of wholesale courage, followed by ecstasy. (See Figure 4-1. ) India has an domiciled talents of encircling 87 GW, 65 per cent of it coal-based. The generating talents of utilities contains a mix of hydro, irascible, and nuunclouded cunningts. Succeeding centreing on hydroelectricity schemes in the 1960s, irascible talents has shown a noteworthy acception. (See Figure 4-2. The portion-out of hydro talents has been sunk for sundry reasons, including low general apology accordingly of counteractive environmental impression and the catholic-flake displabond of commonalty. The portion-out of nuunclouded strength continueed motionhither at encircling 3 percent. Shameful strength offspring from profit talents has acceptiond from 6 billion kilowatt hours March 2000 (kWh) in 1950–51 to 380 billion kWh in 1995–96— an middle product reprove of encircling 10 percent a year (MoF, 1996). Roll at this reprove, talents comment has been disqualified to restrain step succeeding a suitableness call-for, due to earnest financial constraints.
Shortages resagacious fairly unidevise at betwixt 7 and 9 percent, succeeding a suitableness peak shortages in the concatenate of 15 to 20 percent (MoP, 1996). The position may worsen in the countenance of expected call-for acceptions, subjoined economic liberalization policies and disclosed objectives. Hither than a third of courtly intimates are electrified. New talents of 12 GW conciliate be insist-upond perfect year adown the next three Five-Year Plans, and strength call-for by 2020 is estimated at 385 GW, requiring boarding of at last US$380 billion in the strength sector unroll (TERI, 1998b). Coal would resagacious the dominant fuel for strength offspring.
Business-as-regular schemeions for the call-for and accoutre of coal and other elementary courage are giveed in Table 4-1. Contemplated acceptions in carbon orations from the courage sector are shown in Table 4-2. World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 55 Renewables India’s renewable courage program can be traced to the original oil surpfuse in the give 1970s. Renewable courage technologies restrain past been unfolded and implemented in India for strength offspring, fevering, composure, lighting, cross-examineing, cooking devices, and as device fuels for surcountenance ecstasy.
About 1,050 MW of strength generating talents—7 percent of the completion strength talents ascititious during the Eighth Five-Year Plan—was made up of non-regular courage founts (GoI, 1997). A suggestive completionity came from grid-alike twine-farms, whither talents rose from 47 MW in 1992 to 900 MW in 1997. Roll so, renewables compsfrequently hither than 2 percent of completion domiciled talents. Renewable courage founts adduce a suggestive germinative to apply courage accoutre succeeding a suitablenessout not-absolute on carbon-intensive fuels and to recognize for decentralized electricity offspring.
The Ministry for Nonregular Courage Sources (MNES) has adopted a three-pronged adit for its implementation strategy for renewables: (1) providing budgetary footing for R&D and exhibition schemes, (2) applying institutional finance through the Indian Renewable Courage Harvest Association (IREDA) for special sector community and bilateral and multilateral schemes, and (3) promoting special boarding through sundry fiscal incentives such as tax holidays. The MNES has too announced Table 4-2 Table 4-1
Demand and Accoutre Forecasts for Elementary Courage Adown 1995-96 Profession as Regular Fount of Estimates TERI Official Call-for Availability Call-for Availability Call-for Genesis Call-for Genesis 1995? 96 300 290 325 n. a 2001? 02 Coal (Mt) 387 367 440 346 2006? 07 494 474 557 473 TERI Official Petroleum Products (Mt) 67 103 141 54 97 136 n. a 113 155 n. a 113 156 Congruous Gas (billion cubic m3) TERI Call-for n. a 42? 56 32 Availability n. a 54? 83 n. a n. a. Not serviceable; TERI Tata Courage Investigation Institute. Source. TERI, 1998d. sure targets to be achieved in the Ninth Plan.
These grasp • 3,000 MW of attached strength from renewables, • installation of 10,000 PV soak cross-examineing classifications, • light soak-heating classifications for 500,000 intimates, Contemplated CO2 and CH4 Emissions in the Basedirection (Tg) CO2 orations (Tg) Courage sector Forestry/land-use sector Completion CH4 orations (in CO2 GWP equiponderants, Tg) Enteric Fermentationa Enrich Managementb Ricec 1990 532 2 534 143 19 85 247 781 2000 973 29 1,002 154 21 96 270 1,272 2010 1,555 77 1,632 168 22 101 292 1,924 2020 2,308 __ (2,308)d 183 23 108 314 (2,622)d
Total (CH4 barely, Tg) Completion (CO2 and CH4, Tg) a. The oration schemeions are made by the Central Leather Investigation Institute (CLRI), domiciled on carnal population product reprove for 1981-87. b. The oration from enrich superintendence are too domiciled on identical carnal population product reprove. c. Disclosed Physical Laboratory (NPL) estimates. d. Totals except copsery/set use sector. Source: TERI, 1998d. March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ 56 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 500,000 m2 of light collectors in industrial/ wholesale establishments, • attached mean hydro talents of up to 15 MW (MNES, 1998). Besides new renewable technologies, decentralized biocourage cunnings too adduce suggestive germinative to acee courage needs in courtly areas (Ravindranath and Hall, 1995). schemes cover the spectrum of germinative CDM activities, including amendments in industrial agency, strength offspring using dissipate esthetics, and fluctuates in courtly practices. Such variation is compatible succeeding a suitableness using the AIJ giveation as a culture bound.
Formed to pfoster and evaluate schemes, and stoping of representatives from council and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), the “Task Force on AIJ” abides to assess new proposals. Here, we critique 22 separeprove schemes in five irnot-absolute sectors. (see Table 4-4. ) These discretions construct the footing of a proportionately assorting using analytical techniques. Typically, these discretions convey to an amendment in courage agency and refount restraining and conduct-in removed technologies, so laying the footing for crave-term sustainable harvest.
Mitigation discretions in the strength sector grasp neat coal technologies and renewables. Options such as bagasse-domiciled cooffspring and entirely cycle cunningts are already fertile and genereprove fewer orations per kWh of electricity than regular offspring. Similarly, mean hydro-, twine-, and biomass-domiciled strength, though over valuable than regular coal-domiciled cunningts, accoutres suggestive conclusion opportunities. Renewable discretions for strength and irrigation in the farming sector are too considered, as are opportunities in the sturdy, steel, and bond sectors.
Three sagacious criteria inferior the dainty of these discretions: their uniformity succeeding a suitableness disclosed harvest priorities; the proportionately noble flatten of courage India’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Resisting initiatives to elevate neat courage, the comment of regular courage offspring, detailly coal-domiciled offspring, implies a astride acceptioning orations mark for India. Adown profession as regular, courage sector CO2 orations in 2010 may be three spells superior than in 1990 (TERI, 1998d). 4 Table 4-2 too illustrates CO2 orations from the copsery sector and CH4 from the farming sector.
Though proportionately mean in elderity, copsery and set use orations are expected to acception astride. Courtly orations of CH4, statementing for 32 percent of the give global warming germinative from these founts, are expected to acception over unwillingly. Changing harvest paths now strength anticipate greenhouse gas (GHG) orations from reaching such flattens (Reid and Goldemberg, 1997). CDM finance would confirm that bear. Germinative CDM Options India already has five CDM-type schemes in assign adown the escort rendering of the CDM—Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ). (See Table 4-3. ) The Table 4-3
Pilot Presentation AIJ Projects Endorsed by the Council of India Scheme spectry 1 2 3 4 5 Trodden Reprieved Sturdy (DRI) Courage recovering from dissipate gas and infiltratey Integrated Courtly Call-for Side Superintendence DESI Power: biomass gasification Tamarin Orchard Agroforestry for Dry Set Colonization Gujarat Gujarat Andhra Pradesh 20 places Karnataka Investor Japan Japan World Bank Netherlands United States Number M/s Essar, Gujarat, India IPCL Set at Vadodara, Gujarat, India Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board, India DESI Power, Harvest Alternatives, India ADAT, Bagepalli, Karnataka, India March 2000 World Media Institute ttp://www. wri. org/ Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 57 Table 4-4 Germinative CDM Projects Sector Regular strength offspring Base-occurrence technology Pulverized coal subcritical boilers for all occurrences Abandonment discretions Pulverized coal supercritical boilers Divine softized bed incendiarism Pressurized softized bed incendiarism Integrated gasification entirely cycle Entirely cycle gas turbines? congruous gas? domiciled Cogeneration? bagasse? domiciled Renewables for strength offspring Traditional irascible strength offspring using special coal Mean hydro Twine farm Photovoltaic? ased strength offspring Biomass-domiciled strength offspring Renewables for farming Small-flake diesel cross-examinesets Agro-waste? domiciled gasifier Wood-waste? domiciled gasifier Twine shrecognize cross-examine Twine sagacious cross-examine PV cross-examine Sturdy and steel Integrated steel cunningt succeeding a suitableness wetquenching discretion Wet quenching Disclosed hearth furnace Regular electric arc furnace Regular (normal) kinding Bond Non-precalciner kilns Non-preheater kilns Trodden inference course Dry quenching Basic oxygen furnace Ultra-noble strength electric arc furnace Rectilineal kinding Dry precalciner kilns Dry deprivation preheater kilns onsumption in the mean activity; and the proportionately catholic GHG inference germinative adduceed by the conclusion technology. (For a elaborebuke toll of each discretion, see Appendix 4A. ) Regular Strength Offspring Adown profession as regular, coal would resagacious India’s superior fuel for strength offspring, in aspect of the catholic reserves and the noble insist-upon of devices. To restrain up succeeding a suitableness call-for, talents conciliate restrain to acception by 12 GW a year for the next 15 years. Amendment in coal offspring is surely feasible.
Average shameful modifyation agency of coal irascible strength stations is 28 percent, and middle net agency encircling 25 percent (CEA, 1990). A abnormity of new technologies are serviceable to amend courage agency from regular fuel founts, for-the-most-segregate coal. In observation to reducing CO2 orations per ace of output, these technologies could suggestively refer—or eliminate—particulates, SO2, and NOx releases. The commenbond of such technologies would too shape “leapfrogging” for the Indian strength sector, recognizeing http://www. wri. org/ March 2000 World Media Institute 8 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism cunningts to avail instantly from technologies unfolded elsewhere. Over spell, a acceptioning contempt succeeding a suitableness such technologies may fit elevate sell and roll special genesis. Two technologies include fuel switching far from coal to congruous gas and bagasse, appertainingly. The original discretion uses congruous gas in a entirely-cycle technology to arrive-at agency of 50 percent or over—excellent than any coal discretion. Cobenefits would be commensurately nobleer than for coal discretions, too.
Under the bagasse-cooffspring discretion, sugar mills would unfold a talents to smoulder bagasse, a byproduct of sugar refining. Gregarious avails adown this discretion concatenate from attached pay for farmers and sugar mill owners to acceptiond calling opportunities. Roll succeeding a suitablenessout a faith for carbon inferences, this discretion is fertile but could be exceedingly applyed succeeding a suitableness elevate financing. Sturdy and Steel India’s sturdy and steel sector has acceptionn tangiblely past the diligence’s de-licensing in 1991. Completion genesis of artistic steel was 17 Mt in 1994–95, succeeding a suitableness special call-for contemplated to sfrequently to 31 Mt by 2001–02. Such noble product is driven by catholic boardings in infrastructure, product in the ecstasyation sector, and increasing call-for for consumer durables. 6 Per capita attenuate of barely 22 kg—disexoteric the last in the world—leaves suggestive capability for product (TERI, 1998a). The special sector is unfolding 8 Mt of new talents. The sturdy and steel diligence, whither courage statements for 30 percent of genesis insist-upons, is India’s catholicst industrial consumer of courage. However, courage attenuate per ace of output is noble paralleld to abundant other countries—encircling twice as noble as in the old industrial countries nd nobleer than in the sagacious unfolding-country competitors (TERI, 1998a). This is for contrariant reasons. Processing the low-grade ores used by the Indian diligence follows over courage per ace of output. Most cunningts in India peaceful use the limitd wet quenching course of coke provision. Modern dry coke quenching amends the coke condition and refers courage attenuate and remains orations. Efforts are entity made to refer courage attenuate by importing good-tempered-tempered condition coking coal, unfolding fever courage retrieval classifications, phasing out the disclosed hearth furnaces for steel making, and increasing the diligence’s rectilineal kinding talents.
Potential CDM activities for the sturdy and steel sector are listed in Table 4-4. These are domiciled on introducing prevalent technology into all or segregate of the steel-making course. Such technology conciliate inferior CO2 orations and concomitantly foster the agency of steel making in India. Unfortunately, succeeding a publicingdrawal of extensive postulates anticipates estimation of carbon figure ($/tC), and so amendments are explicit barely in stipulations of inferences per ton of artistic steel. Renewable Courage Sources and Technologies The product of regular new courage talents has slowed during the Eighth Five-Year Plan.
Projects in strength offspring, coal mining, and oil and gas exploration—which insist-upon crave gestation bounds and suggestive flattens of boarding and financial restructuring—are tardy aback call-for. Consequently, thither is roll superior publicing for renewable courage technologies to acee talents call-fors. Renewable discretions were considered for twain strength offspring and for strength accoutre and irrigation in the farming sector. Indelicate strength-offspring discretions are examined: mean hydro, twine farms, biomass gasifiers, and photovoltaics.
Decentralized strength may originate new jobs by enhancing persomal courage accoutre and expanding sagacioustenance needs for strength offspring (e. g. , through courage cunningtations for biomass) or by promoting economic product generally. Increased call-for for biomass gasifiers and photovoltaics would too originate job opportunities in the manufacturing sector. As renewable technologies, counteractive environmental impressions are minimized or non-existent. Similar avails pertain to renewable technologies for the courtly sector. Bond India is the indelicateth catholicst effectr of bond succeeding China, Japan, and the United States.
The bond diligence is one of the six most courage-intensive http://www. wri. org/ March 2000 World Media Institute Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 59 industries in India (TERI, 1998a). Bond is artful in India using dry, semidry, or wet coursees. The prevalent bear favors the dry manufacturing course, which consumes hither irascible courage than the wet course, roll though it uses over electricity (CMA, 1996; CMA, sundry years). The bond diligence is a rectilineal course diligence whither strength cuts not barely break-in-pieces genesis but can devolve insist-upsingly mischief to equipment.
To sagacioustain rectilineal bond genesis, the use of vassal strength by bond diligence is increasing— 27 percent of the completion strength accoutre is prevalently from vassal strength paralleld to 16 percent at the initiate of the decade (CMA, 1997). Two detail conclusion discretions are critiqueed hither: the commenbond of dry precalciner kilns and dry deprivation preheater kilns. The original technology recognizes 85 to 90 percent of the essential prematter (“calcination,” of the “meal” input) to follow assign at a inferior latitude than used in the sagacious kiln, a suggestive courage reluctant not-absolute to prevalent technology.
The elevate technology uses in a preheater kiln dissipate fever remellow from the sagacious kiln. in India—could footing a abnormity of abandonment schemes, from trodden carbon sequestration to biomass product for courage use that would disassign coal smouldering. The ALGAS-India consider critiqueed a estimate of device copsery sector schemes that would pacify carbon (TERI, 1998d). (See Table 4-5. ) Besides ancillary to acee acceptioning call-fors for timber, firecope and electricity, such activities would collate other avails. Newly afforested areas would refer give flattens of stain erosion and soak dropping on closeend ands and would repair biodiversity. Afforestation would too foster grass productivity, applying grazing talents (Shailajaha et al. , 1994). Large-flake afforestation and reforestation activities would too succumb calling opportunities, detailly disexoteric courtly, low-pay groups, through cunningting, harvesting, and courseing of biomass and by accoutreing non-timber copse products. Irnot-absolute schemes adduce a irnot-absolute mix of carbon and other avails. Congruous Reoffspring would centre liberally on carbon sequestration and would accoutre a noble flatten of ecological avails.
Community copelots would sequester hither carbon instantly but would acee persomal call-fors for biomass as a founding esthetic and fuel fount. In so doing, they would refer the parcel on women of retrieving firecope and other biomass. Plantations and agroforestry strength adduce over calling opportunities than other discretions. Contrariant copsery discretions restrain been contemplated to USIJI for compensation as AIJ schemes. These grasp a bioelectricity scheme that would genereprove Set Use and Forestry Sector
In observation to schemes in the industrial and courage sectors, CDM discretions in the copsery sector adduce a mix of carbon and sustainable harvest avails. Abated set, estimated at betwixt 66 and 130 favorite hectares (ha)—20 to 40 percent of completion area Table 4-5 Germinative CDM Projects in the Forestry Sector Elementary area (Mha) 16 9 13 24 Carbon pool at the end of 40 years (t/ha) 77 171 138 83 Completion carbon after a opportunitydrawn (Tg) 1,194 1,611 1,735 2,006 Abandonment discretion Congruous reoffspring Enhanced reoffspring Marginally closeend flatten Altogether closeend set Special set (agroforestry) Source: TERI (1998d).
Cost (1990 US$/tC) 6 33 40 15 March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ 60 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism electricity from biomass acceptionn on closeend set, a teak cunningtation for carbon sequestration, and a tamarind agroforestry scheme, already public by the Indian Task Force on AIJ, which would accoutre outgrowth, hammer set deprivation and desertification, and sequester carbon (Ravindranath et al. , 1998). All these activities adduce sustainable harvest avails and are compatible succeeding a suitableness the priorities of inequitable Indian ministries.
Though questions stay encircling which, if any, types of copsery scheme conciliate be permitted adown the CDM, these schemes denote a carbon and sustainable harvest germinative perfect bit as suggestive as, and repeatedly hither insist-upsingly than, courage and industrial sector schemes. Table 4-6 Harvest Criteria Used to Evaluate Projects Sagacious condition Feasibility Subcondition - Uniformity succeeding a suitableness council skillful-treatment - Socioeconomic harvest - Scheme abandon Nonclimate environmental avails Harvest - Refount restraining - Retrench in stain imputeing - Heartiness - Calling offspring - Value ascititious - Courtly harvest
Prioritizing CDM discretions Which of the aloft discretions are best insists on one’s perspective. Developed-country investors conciliate be liberally solicitous encircling a scheme’s conclusion insist-upon, financial abandon, and feasibility. India conciliate be over solicitous encircling a scheme’s harvest and environmental avails and their uniformity succeeding a suitableness disclosed priorities. Irnot-absolute segregateies to a proceeding conciliate test scheme characteristics irrelatively, suggesting that unfolded- and unfolding-country segregateicipants would assort overall schemes irrelatively. To weigh how schemes acee disclosed priorities and which, if any, would atisfy all segregateies, schemes were assessed twain on the footing of their harvest avails and their carbon-conclusion insist-upon. Suitableness assessing conclusion insist-upon is proportionately sincere, evaluating harvest avails insist-upons similarity of irnot-absolute types of impression—amendment in air condition, say, opposing the avails of courtly electrification or calling offspring. Inevitably, the toll of cobenefits is partially interior. However, a pattern can be used to bring-encircling the evaluation framework obvious and to weigh sensitivities.
Such a pattern—an Analytical Hierarchical Course (AHP)—was used hither. (See Appendix 4B for details. ) Projects were evaluated opposing nine irnot-absolute criteria that follow to restrain India’s harvest priorities. 7 (See Table 4-6. ) Researchers and governMarch 2000 ment officials were then polled on the avail of irnot-absolute harvest criteria recognizeing testts to be assignd on these irnot-absolute cobenefits. Scoring each scheme opposing these testted criteria originated an resemble toll of the overall harvest germinative.
The assorting proceeding was conducted on a sectoral footing for indelicate of the sectors critiqueed aloft. Projects were assorted twain by carbon-conclusion insist-upon unroll and by a value of overall harvest avails. Table 4-7 illustrates how the two assortings parallel. For three of the indelicate sectors for which similaritys can be made, the two nobleest assorted discretions, domiciled on insist-upon of carbon offset, are too the two nobleest assorted discretions, domiciled on their cobenefits. This suggests a noble position of overlap betwixt schemes that would be absorbed guidance by carbon-focused investors and schemes that are in India’s best cause.
Only the renewables for strength offspring condition shows a mismatch in the original-dainty as perceived by trade criteria unroll and the rove criteria that bring-encircling up the AHP scores. Too in regular strength offspring and renewables for farming, some of the inferior assortings are irrelative. Conclusions For the conclusion discretions critiqueed, thither seems to be a noble position of overlap betwixt schemes serviceable at last insist-upon and schemes most compatible succeeding a suitableness disclosed priorities and adduceing the most to http://www. wri. org/ World Media Institute
Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 61 Table 4-7 Summary of Sector Rankings and Carbon Figure Predicted conclusion insist-upon (U. S. dollars/tC removed) Regular Strength Offspring Bagasse-domiciled cooffspring Entirely cycle offspring (congruous gas) Divine softized bed incendiarism Pressurized softized bed incendiarism Pulverized coal super-critical boilers Integrated gasification entirely cycle –244 –133 7 47 96 96 1 2 3 4 5 5 1 2 5 4 6 3 Ranking by conclusion insist-upon Ranking by overall harvest avails (base-occurrence testts) Project
Renewables for Strength Offspring Mean hydro Biomass strength Twine farm Photovoltaic 29 134 216 1,306 1 2 3 4 2 1 3 4 Renewables for Farming Wood-dissipate gasifier Agro-dissipate gasifier Twine polite (shallow) Twine polite (deep) Photovoltaic cross-examine 169 177 298 329 6,333 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 5 4 3 Cement, Iron, and Steel Composition Dry deprivation preheater kiln Dry precalciner kiln 7 214 1 2 1 2 March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ 62 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism India in stipulations of harvest and environment cobenefits.
This article too demonstrates a helpful courseology for evaluating the sustainable harvest germinative of schemes adduceing irnot-absolute types of cobenefit. Inevitably, testing schemes that genereprove irnot-absolute and unquantifiable cobenefits conciliate be partially interior. The custom of the assorting (AHP) technique used hither is that it originates a obvious framework for handling interior aspects on a scheme’s value. Over spell, the testts absorbed to irnot-absolute types of avail conciliate restrain to be uniformly updated to exhibit the concluding preferences apparent in the political course.
This consider has giveed a preparatory prioritization of CDM schemes for India. The prevalent contact of that technique could be amendd or applyed in contrariant ways. Ideally, all schemes could be paralleld aceedly, instead of absolutely succeeding a suitablenessin sectors. This would let skillful-treatmentmakers apprehend which sectors should be emphasized antecedently deciding which schemes succeeding a suitablenessin a sector bring-encircling most import. Adding schemes and sectors would recognize for a over compendious evaluation. In detail, including set use and copsery discretions, resisting their prevalent condition in the negotiations, would be beneficial. The ecstasy sector is another germinative area for financing.
Urban air stain and redundancy restrain been verified as key environmental examples instantly discoverable to the abundant wavering motor vehicles on the course. The CDM could be used to aid finance new ecstasy initiatives or to amend engine technologies. Finally, over details on the schemes themselves would recognize for over accureprove evaluation. For pattern, the heartiness avails of neater coal technologies are easily-affected to the punctilious colonization of the cunningt to be qualified. Roll at this extent, ultimately, it is unclouded that claimant schemes in India could concomitantly bring-encircling speed on the dual goals set out for the CDM.
Ultimately, it is up to India to career which schemes to put obtrusive for CDM boarding. Scheme evaluation for carbon as polite as non-carbon avails should be elevate unfolded to maximize this overlap. March 2000 Notes 1. 2 3 4 This exception draws on TERI (1998d). Class I cities restrain a population of 100,000 or superior; Class II cities restrain populations of betwixt 50,000 and 100,000. This exception draws on TERI (1998b). These are CO2 orations from the courage sector in a domiciledirection scenario for 1990–2020 ostentatious a 12 percent abatement reprove. They were fitted using the MARKAL pattern.
This is domiciled on modereprove estimates of product of GDP (5 percent to 6 percent a year) Appraisal of the Faith Rating Information Services of India Ltd. (CRISIL). In the constructal resolution and assortings shown subjoined in Table 4-7, some acknowledgment was too absorbed to the carbon-conclusion insist-upon. This ultimately, completionityed to barely 7. 5 percent of a scheme’s assorting and did not modify the overall assortings. 5 6 7 References Asthana (1993) Impacts of Greenhouse Gas Induced Sea-flatten Sfrequently on Islands and Coasts of India. New Delhi: Department of Environment and Forests, Jawaharlal Nehru University.
Bhoyar, R. V. , Titus, S. K. , Bhide, A. D. , Khanna, P. (1996) Oppidan and industrial Powerful Dissipate Superintendence in India. Journal of Indian Association of Environmental Management, 23: 53-64. CEA (1990) General Electric Supply, All India Statistics, General Critique 1986-87. New Delhi: Central Electricity Authority, Council of India. CMA (1996) Indian Bond Diligence (Statistics) 1995-96. New Delhi: Bond Manufacturers’ Association. CMA (1997) 36th Annual Report 1996-97. New Delhi: Bond Manufacturers’ Association. CMA (Undated) Sundry Issues. Indian Bond Diligence (Statistics).
New Delhi: Bond Manufacturers’ Association. Confederation of Indian Industries (1996) Environmental Profession Opportunities in India: A Guide. New Delhi: CII. CPCB (1990) Condition of Soak Accoutre and Wastesoak Collection, Matter and Distribution in Class I Cities—1988. New Delhi: Central Stain Modetrounce Board. EPTRI (1995) Condition of Powerful Dissipate Distribution in Metropolis. Hyderabad: Environment Defence Training and Investigation Institute. Draft. GoI (1997) Annual Cunning 1996/97. New Delhi: Planning Commission, Council of India. Haarsma, R. J. , Mitchell, J. F. B. , Senior, C. A. 1993) Tropical Disturances in GCM. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 8, pp. 247257. World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 63 IEA (1998) Key World Courage Statistics construct the IEA, Interdisclosed Courage Agency, Paris, Cedex 15 Kumar, K. S. Kavi, Parikh, J. (1998) Climate Fluctuate Impacts on Indian Agriculture: The Ricardian Approach. In Dinar et al. edited Measuring the Impression of Climate Fluctuate on Indian Agriculture. World Bank Techical Article No. 402. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Lonergan (1998) Climate Warming and India. In Dinar et al. dited Measuring the Impression of Climate Fluctuate on Indian Agriculture. World Bank Techical Article No. 402. Washington, DC: The World Bank. MoF (1996) Economic Survey 1995/96. New Delhi: Ministry of Finance, Council of India. MNES (1998) Annual Report 1997/98. New Delhi: Ministry of Non-convential Energy, Council of India. MoF (1996) Economic Survey, 1995/96. New Delhi, Ministry of Finance, Council of India. MoP (1996) Annual Report 1995/96. New Delhi: Ministry of Power, Council of India. Rao, D. G. , and Sinha, S. K. (1994) Impression of Climate Fluctuate on Stimulated Wfever Genesis in India. In C. Rosenzweig and A.
Iglesias edited Implications of Climate Fluctuate for Interdisclosed Agriculture: Harvest Modelling Study. Washington, DC: United States Environment Defence Agency. Ravindranath, N. and B. Somashekhar (1995) “Potential and Economics of Forestry Options for Carbon Sequestration in India,” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 323-336. Ravindranath, N. and D. Hall (1995) Biomass, courage and environment, A unfolding country perspective from India, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Ravindranath, N, A. Meili and R. Anita (1998) AIJ in the NonEnergy Sector in India:Opportunities and Concerns, Prepared for the U.
S. EPA Climate Skillful-treatment and Program Division, November. Reid, W. and J. Goldemberg (1997) “Are Developing Countries Already Doing as Plenteous as Industrialized Countries to Slow Climate Change? ” WRI Climate Note. Washington D. C: World Media Institute. Shailajaha, R, N Ravindranath, H. Somashekar and K Jagadish (1994) “Biomass offspring in qualified tree cunningtations,” Courage and Sustainable Harvest , Vol. 1, pp. 52-55. TERI (1996) Survey of Slag Utilization in India. New Delhi: TERI. TERI Scheme Report No. 95EE51. TERI (1998a) Activities Implemented Jointly in India. New Delhi: TERI. TERI Scheme Report No. 7GW54, pp. 100. TERI (1998b) TEDDY 1998/99. New Delhi: TERI. Draft. TERI (1998c) Looking Back to Think Ahead: GREEN India 2047. New Delhi: TERI. TERI (1998d) India Disclosed Report on Asia Least-insist-upon Greenhouse Gas Conclusion Strategy (ALGAS). New Delhi: TERI. TERI Scheme Report No. 95GW52. Draft: June 1998. TERI (1998e) Harvest of a Framework for Electricity Tariffs in Gujarat. Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd. in Association succeeding a suitableness Tata Courage Investigation Institute. New Delhi: TERI. ADB T. A. No. 2739-IND. Draft Terminal Report: February 1998. TERI (1998f) Greenhouse Gas Abandonment Consider for Southern India.
TERI Scheme Report No. 95BO51. New Delhi: TERI. Draft: June 1998. UNEP (1997) Asia Pacific Environment Outlook. Bangkok, Thailand: United Nations Environment Program, Environment Toll Program for Asia and the Pacific. Washington, DC: World Bank, South Asia Regional Office. World Bank (1996) India’s Environment—Taking Stock of Plans, Programs and Priorities. World Media Institute in collaboration succeeding a suitableness the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Harvest Programme, and the World Bank (1998) World Media Report 1998-99. New York: Oxford University Press.
March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ 64 Appendix 4A Neat Harvest Mechanism Options, by Sector Appendix 4A March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Table 4A-1 Regular Strength Sector Pulverized coal subcritical boilers Base-occurrence technology. Over the last 50 years, ace liberalness has rectilineally acceptiond to over than 500 MW. Agency rating of a catholic fume-fired cunningt is 36 percent or nobleer. Pulverized coal supercritical boilers Pulverized supercritical boilers are not artful in India. However, a separate 500 MW ace has been extraneously financed.
Efficiency is aloft 38 percent. Divine softized bed incendiarism Incendiarism of coal adown softized stipulations at divine hurry, succeeding a suitableness the fever irresponsible by incendiarism sellred to the soft in the soak bastion to genereprove fume. Clear efficiencies concatenate from 35 to 38 percent. Pressurized softized bed incendiarism A entirely cycle technology for coal-domiciled offspring. The regular incendiarism room of the gas turbine is replaced by a pressurized softized bed combustor. The products of incendiarism ignoring through a hot gas neatup classification antecedently entering the turbine.
Exhaust gas is utilized in a downdrift turbine. Shameful efficiencies are 40 to 42 percent. 47 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Parameters Discretion Incremental insist-uponproductiveness (US$/t CO2 inference) Inference in air stain Mean Occurrence 96 7 Mean Occurrence Actually reprieved SO2 and CO Perfect egress of segregateiculates. SO2 inferences of 70 to 95 percent; NOx inferences of 50 to 80 percent. Powerful dissipate acceptions but grasps gypsum? a feasible byproduct. Neutral Perfect egress of segregateiculates. SO2 inferences of 80 to 95 percent; NOx inferences of 50 to 80 percent.
Solid dissipate acceptions but grasps gypsum? a feasible byproduct. Neutral Inference in other pollutants Other environmental avails What gregarious avails effect? (e. g. , want gratification, courtly harvest) Note: US$1 = Rs 40 Mean Occurrence Reprieved authorityful dissipate Mean Occurrence Neutral Mean Occurrence Neutral Sale of gypsum begets attached pay and may originate jobs. Sale of gypsum begets attached pay and may originate jobs. March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Appendix 4A Table 4A-1 Regular Strength Sector (continued) Integrated gasification entirely cycle A gasification cunningt applys coal nto a combustible and untarnished gas, which is ignoringed to a gas turbine. Exhaust gases are restraind and genereprove fume. For elevate-offspring technologies, efficiencies are expected to be 45 to 50 percent. Entirely cycle offspring domiciled on Congruous gas Congruous gas entirely cycle cunningts use the dissipate fever in a fever retrieval fume generator (HRSG), generating attached strength. Agency is 50 percent or nobleer. Bagasse-domiciled cooffspring Bagasse-fired cooffspring would convey to noble agency in sugar mills and accoutre a catholic talents, state-of-the-art, off-season fuel accoutre.
It would insist-upon retrofitting tangible boilers and installing cooffspring equipment and removed stain modetrounce equipment. Set clear agency is as noble as 80 percent Parameters Discretion Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Carbon Benefits Incremental insist-upon fertileness (US$/t CO2 inference) Environmental Benefits Inference in air stain Perfect egress of segregateiculates. SO2 inference of 90 to 99 percent; NOx inference of 60 to 90 percent. Bottom ash is begetd.
Complete egress of SO2 and segregateiculates; tangible inference of NOx No authorityful dissipate offspring Eliminates air stain. 96 ? 133 ? 244 Inference in other pollutants (e. g. , authorityful dissipates) Other environmental avails (e. g. , biovariation defence, defence of ecosystems) Powerful dissipate is reprieved accordingly bagasse is used for strength offspring. By displacing coal-domiciled strength offspring, introdden avails asfrequently from reprieved stain imputeing from mining and disestablishd strength offspring. Neutral Set insist-uponment is tangiblely reprieved. Gregarious Benefits What gregarious avails effect? (e. . , want gratification, courtly harvest) Note: US$1 = Rs 40 Neutral Neutral Attached pay offspring for twain farmers and sugar mill owners. Attached calling offspring. 65 66 March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Appendix 4A Table 4A-2 Renewables for Strength Offspring Parameters Description of discretion Mean hydro Mean hydro aces can follow custom of mean discharges from incessant drifts and roll acme irrelativeials in catholic irrigation classifications in the plains. Domiciled talents concatenates from 3 MW to 15 MW. This is a centralized strength-offspring discretion.
Wind farm A twine farm is made up of gridalike twine electric generators (usually 200kW and aloft). Although twine generators can be used for twain centralized and decentralized strength offspring, the catholicst installations to limit restrain been alike to a grid. They liberally accustom horizontal axis twine turbines. Grid-alike generators concatenate from 100 to 300 kW concatenate. Units of 0. 5 to 1 MW should quickly be serviceable. Biomass strength In a gasifier, authorityful fuel is applyed by a order of thermochemical coursees into a gaseous fuel that can be combusted. This technology can be used in gridalike or stand-unroll contacts.
More empiricism and exhibition needs to be produced succeeding a suitableness mean-flake gasification technology (100 to 500 kW). This is a decentralized discretion. Photovoltaic Light PV classifications apply sunlight into electricity through a semiconductor electronic course. Although the discretion is for decentralized strength offspring, catholic-flake profit discretions are too feasible. The noble insist-upon of PV is a superior hindrance to its clearance. Further, although the modules are noblely legitimate, overall classification reliability is constrained by thin deed of redress classifications. Costs for this technology conciliate sink succeeding a suitableness culture. 1,306
Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Carbon Benefits Incremental insist-upon fertileness (US$/t CO2 inference) Environmental Benefits Air stain (e. g. , SO2, NOx, TSP, Ozone, CO) No air stain No air stain Encircling 70 to 80 percent of the fossil fuel is replaced by biomass, reducing orations of segregateiculates, SO2 and NOx, inadequately emitted Powerful dissipate offspring is minimized as authorityful dissipate in the construct of briquettes is used as fuel. Enhances persomal courage safeguard. No air stain 29 216 134 Inference in other pollutants (e. g. , authorityful dissipates) Other environmental avails (e. . , biovariation defence, defence of ecosystems) None None None Mean hydro avoids the examples of catholic dams such as submergence of fertile and/or copse set, dropping of biodiversity, displabond of commonalty. Generates persomal calling, courtly harvest, and other cognate economic activities. Enhances persomal courage safeguard. Enhances persomal courage safeguard. What gregarious avails effect? (e. g. , want gratification, courtly harvest) Creates calling for twain serviceable and semiserviceable workers. Creates persomal calling opportunities and activities cognate to courage cunningtation.
Further, as strength offspring is decentralized it may convey to territoryal harvest of economic and industrial activities. The technology is completibarely suitable, so calling in manufacturing may too acception due to the acceptiond utilization of gasifiers. Unlike other discretions, it is noblely appropriate intensive. But, accelerated wholesaleization strength originate jobs in manufacturing, installation and sagacioustenance activities. Note: US $1 = Rs 40 March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Appendix 4A Table 4A-3 Renewables for Farming Parameters Description of discretion Agro-waste? domiciled gasifiers
Gasifiers fueled by courtly dissipates. The compatibility betwixt gas and engine needs to be fixed. Too talents founding is insist-upond in classification production and sagacioustenance. Wood-waste? domiciled gasifiers As preceding but fueled by cope dissipates Twine shrecognize polite Windmills can be used to cross-examine soak in either sagacious or shrecognize polites. In India, twine cross-examines are regularly effortclose rather than electric. The technology needs to be elevate unfolded to subdue prevalent artifice examples. Repeatedly the identical artifice classifications restrain to be used for irnot-absolute place stipulations. Also, thither is a succeeding a publicingdrawal of becoming technical backup. Twine sagacious polite
As preceding but succeeding a suitableness sagaciouser polite PV cross-examine Photovoltaics can be used for soak cross-examineing and close irrigation in territorys succeeding a suitableness shrecognize soak tables. Two types of cross-examine are serviceable: surcountenance centrifugal cross-examines and sagacious polite submersible cross-examines. Sizes concatenate from 300 Wp to 2,250 Wp. This technology insist-upons suggestive harvest. Give constraints stop of low electricity figures for the farming sector and the noble appropriate insist-upon. 6,333 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Carbon Benefits Incremental insist-upon fertileness (US$/t CO2 inference) Environmental Benefits Inference in air stain (e. . , SO2, NOx, TSP, Ozone, CO) 177 169 298 329 Would tangiblely refer diesel use and thus segregateiculate and CO orations. Reductions in SO2 would insist on the condition of fuel used, suitableness NOx inference would insist on incendiarism latitude. Twain the dying can be inferior to tangiblely refer overall stain Powerful dissipate is suggestively reprieved through briquetting of authorityful dissipates and over perfect incendiarism. This discretion would compromise suggestive reluctant of fossil fuels as polite as anticipate deforestation. Further, heartiness hazards would be exceedingly reprieved. Identical as agrodissipate gasifiers
Reduction in air pollutants occurs through displabond of cross-examinesets using convocation fossil fuels (diesel). Identical as twine shrecognize polite Inference in air pollutants occurs through displabond of cross-examinesets using convocation fossil fuels (diesel). Inference in other pollutants (e. g. , authorityful dissipates) Other environmental avails (e. g. , biovariation defence, defence of ecosystems) Identical as agrodissipate gasifiers Oil sludge from diesel aces is disestablishd. Noise stain is tangiblely reprieved. Conserves soak by using emend soak superintendence techniques. This in reverse conveys to stain restraining by reducing top stain erosion.
Same as twine shrecognize polite Oil sludge from diesel aces is disestablishd. Noise stain is tangiblely reprieved. Conserves soak by using emend soaksuperintendence techniques. This in reverse conveys to stain restraining by reducing top stain erosion. Benefits are inferior than in the twinecross-examine occurrences. Neutral Identical as agrodissipate gasifiers Identical as twine shrecognize polite Gregarious Benefits What gregarious avails effect? (e. g. , want gratification, courtly harvest) Note: US$1 = Rs 40. Courtly harvest from removed technology addiscretion in the farming sector and a neater environment. Identical as agrodissipate gasifiers Neutral Identical as twine shrecognize polite 7 68 March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Appendix 4A Table 4A-4 Sturdy and Steel Trodden inference course [DRP] Sturdy ore is instantly reprieved to sturdy by using coal or congruous gas as fuel antecedently the effecting ? purify sturdy? is applyed to steel in an electric arc furnace (EAF) adopting ultra-noble strength furnace technology (UHF). Dry quenching + BF(HP) + TRT + BOF + CC [DQ] Dry quenching of coke using nitrogen gas. Dissipate fever is remellow from the nitrogen gas to genereprove strength for interior use in the cunningt. In the sturdymaking course, a noblehurry efflation furnace succeeding a suitableness a top retrieval turbine (TRT) is used.
The continueing dissipate fever is used for course fever contact. The steel-making course uses a basic oxygen furnace (BOF), which uses oxygen to apply pig sturdy to steel instead of fuel oil as in the disclosed hearth furnace (OHF). The molten steel is kind in rectilineal kinder (CC). Basic oxygen furnace [BOF] Hot metal from the efflation furnace is applyed instantly to steel by blowing oxygen into the metal, thus reducing its carbon pleased adown 1 percent. This technology is convenient barely in steel manufacturing in integrated steel cunningts. It is not wholesalely serviceable in India.
Ultra-noble strength electric arc furnace (UHPEAF) An electric arc furnace worthy of clear at latitudes of up to 3500oC. This technology is used in manufacturing steel, liberally in purify sturdy cunningts and mini-steel cunningts that use barely atom as feedstock. However, EAFs restrain other contacts in the abrasives, rebellious, and electrochemical industries. This technology too has to be leading. Rectilineal kinding [CC] Molten steel is instantly kind to artistic steel, completibarely bypassing the comprised extent of unchastened steel composition whither a tangible completionity of courage is dissipated in the finishing.
This course is convenient to steel manufacturing in twain integrated steel cunningts and mini-steel cunningts. Parameters Description of discretion Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Appropriate mean-occurrence similarity Carbon Benefits Financial insist-upon (1990 US$) Carbon dioxide inference (Kg CO2/t of sturdy and steel) Integrated steel cunningt technology succeeding a suitableness the wet quenching (WQ) discretion, efflation furnace (BF), disclosed hearth furnace (OHF), reheating furnace (RHF), and ordinary kinding (NC). 230 to 415/ t artistic steel (tfs) 457. 6 Kg/tfs
Wet quenching (WQ) Disclosed hearth furnace discretion succeeding a suitableness efflation furnace (BF), and disclosed hearth furnace (OHF), reheating furnace (RHF), and ordinary kinding (NC). Regular electric arc furnace Regular kinding 692 to 831 / tfs (extraneously TRT). 57. 6 Kg/tfs 20. 4 M to 40. 9 M. 182. 7 Kg/tfs 42. 6 M to 53. 2 M 1,100 Kg/tfs 95. 9 M. 1,675. 7 Kg/tfs March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Appendix 4A Table 4A-4 Sturdy and Steel (continued) Trodden inference course [DRP] Dry quenching + BF(HP) + TRT + BOF + CC [DQ] Basic oxygen furnace [BOF] Ultra-noble strength electric arc furnace (UHP-EAF) Rectilineal kinding [CC] Parameters
Environmental Benefits Inference in air stain (e. g. , SO2, NOx, TSP, Ozone, CO) Stain imputeing Tangible inference in insists on fuel use. stain, chiefly Nonetheless, a segregateiculates tangible inference in stain occurs as a effect of minimizing clear steps Reprieved authorityful dissipate No authorityful dissipate begetd Succeeding a suitableness oxygen replacing fuel oil, all pollutants are tangiblely reprieved. Closely a twothirds inference in all pollutants. All pollutants are reprieved (as no reheating is insist-upond). Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Inference in other pollutants (e. g. , authorityful dissipates)
No authorityful dissipate begetd As mean occurrence Powerful dissipate offspring is tangiblely minimized, as are insist-uponments for composure soak and fuel oil. Introdden avails from not using composure soak, fuel oil and coal. Other environmental avails (e. g. , biovariation defence, defence of ecosystems) Gregarious Benefits What gregarious avails effect? (e. g. , want gratification, courtly harvest) Twain soak and set insist-uponments are hither. No soak is used, and environmental hazards are tangiblely reprieved. Substantial. Not barely is the dissipate fever retrieval very noble, but dissipate gases from BOF can too be used as fuels in other segregates of the cunningt.
As mean occurrence This technology conveys to a trade-off: suitableness appropriate insist-upons are proportionately low, the noble economies of flake seen in catholic integrated steel cunningts cannot be sustained. As mean occurrence As mean occurrence As mean occurrence Introdden avails as heartiness hazards are minimized. Tfs tons of artistic steel. ; M favorite. Note: US $1 = Rs 40 69 70 March 2000 World Media Institute http://www. wri. org/ Appendix 4A Table 4-5 Bond Parameters Description of discretion Dry precalciner kilns Precalcination is a course of treating the raw asceticism antecedently feeding it to the sagacious kiln.
In the precalcination course, the preburning raw asceticism is fevered at a inferior latitude than that in the sagacious kiln. The completionity of calcination achieved is betwixt 85 and 90 percent. This technology is convenient barely in dry course bond manufacturing. For this occurrence, the mean technology is non-precalciner kiln. 214 Dry-Suspension Preheater Kilns Hot gases leaving the sagacious kiln are betwixt 900 and 1100oC and convey a tangible aggregate of dissipate fever. This dissipate fever is remellow in noble-agency deprivation cyclone preheaters. This technology is serviceable barely in dry course bond manufacturing.
For this occurrence, the mean occurrence is no preheater kiln. Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism Carbon Benefits Incremental insist-upon fertileness (US$/t CO2 inference)a Environmental Benefits Inference in air stain (e. g. , SO2, NOx, TSP, Ozone, CO) Inference in other pollutants (e. g. , authorityful dissipates) Other environmental avails (e. g. , biovariation defence, defence of ecosystems) Gregarious Benefits What gregarious avails effect? (e. g. , want gratification, courtly harvest) 7 Inference in pollutants as courage attenuate is tangiblely reprieved.
As appropriate mean occurrence As appropriate mean occurrence A inference in stain is mitigated accordingly of the low courage attenuate during the calcination course. As appropriate mean occurrence As appropriate mean occurrence As appropriate mean occurrence As appropriate mean occurrence Notes:Plant talents is 3,000 tons per day; and the cunningt works 310 days a year. US $1 = Rs 40 Financing Sustainable Harvest succeeding a suitableness the Neat Harvest Mechanism 71 Appendix 4B Ranking Projects Aid Irnot-absolute Types of Noncarbon Benefits Projects are unamenable to assort accordingly abundant dignified criteria are unquantifiable and non-comparable.
How, for pattern, should a scheme that conveys to aircondition amendments be paralleld succeeding a suitableness a scheme that begets jobs? To paraphernalia this example, an Analytical Hierarchical Course (AHP) technique is used. AHP accoutres a instrument for scoring and testting a abandonment discretion’s unquantifiable attributes. Though providing no separate answers, the AHP effects communicate which schemes conciliate be preferred adown irnot-absolute criteria and how assortings would fluctuate if sure criteria were testted irrelatively. AHP lends paleness and edifice to scheme evaluation and decisionmaking.
To assess and set priorities for abandonment discretions, we restrain used the Hierarchical Preference Resolution pattern (HIPRE) unfolded by the Systems Resolution Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Technology. The course compromises assorting a scheme by indelicate criteria: insist-upon-effectiveness, feasibility and uniformity succeeding a suitableness disclosed priorities, non-climate avails, and harvest avails. Aggregating these for each scheme recognizes scheme similaritys. Priorities were unfolded for each sector critiqueed. CDM discretions are evaluated opposing the indelicate subjoined criteria, three of them succeeding a suitableness elevate subcriteria: Incremental insist-upon fertileness: the incremental insist-upon per ace of CO2 inference. • Feasibility: including uniformity succeeding a suitableness tangible council skillful-treatment; perceived abandons from twain the investors’ and the number country’s points of aspect; and uniformity succeeding a suitableness disclosed priorities, spectryly, gregarious and economic harvest. • Other