Toulmin Argument

Abby Boyce English 1201 Professor McGehee 10/22/2012 Cover Sheet a) Who is your audience? My audience applies to everyone in the US. My audience is very broad because my topic touches base on an issue that can or could potentially affect anyone directly or indirectly as well. b) How would you like your readers to describe the personality you present on the page? My personality is confident. I believe in my argument and feel strongly about it. c) What question does your paper answer? It answers the question as to whether or not there is an issue with police brutality. ) What’s your thesis/claim? Something needs to be done immediately to end the violence and inappropriate discipline being inflicted on our citizens. The harsh discipline we are discovering is being used more and more often should not be tolerated. Abby Boyce English 1201 Professor McGehee 10/22/2012 Toulmin Questionnaire Claim Questions: What’s my claim? Something needs to be done immediately to end the violence and inappropriate discipline being inflicted on our citizens. The harsh discipline we are discovering is being used more and more often should not be tolerated.
Is it valid? What makes it valid? -Yes. It’s valid because I have lots of evidence and quotes from sources to back me up as well as strong warrants and backing to help support me as well. I truly believe in my claim and will defend it fully. Is it practical? Can it actually be acted out? Yes, and yes. It touches base on a topic that is growing and becoming a big problem in society. Using “sociological terms” it is becoming a macro problem. It’s no longer a micro one. Are there qualifications I must make to my claim?
I’m not necessarily sure this question pertains well to my topic specifically, but I don’t feel there are any qualifications I must obtain to be able to state and back up my claim other than the fact that you must have some good evidence and knowledge on the topic. What will be some possible challenges to my claim? Some may oppose by saying the media is making police brutality into a bigger issue than it really is, or that the violence police use is justified as “self-defense”. Who could benefit most from accepting my claim? Who may be harmed or benefit the least?

All citizens can benefit. The people that may not agree or like my claim is the police departments who hired police officers who have been offenders of police brutality. Grounds questions: What are my grounds? – According to the St. Paul yearly analysis, in 2010 crime rates for homicides alone have shot up 9% since 2001. – “In 1982, the federal government funded a “Police Services Study” in which over 12,000 randomly selected citizens were interviewed in three metropolitan areas. Do I have sufficient evidence to support my claim? Yes.
I used pieces of quotes from the StarTribune as well as statistics from a trusted website. Do I have pieces of evidence that are compelling? Least compelling? Some of my quotes are more coercive than others. The statistics I used are stronger than the quotes I used from the StarTribune because the quotes seem more like an opinion rather than a solid fact. Warrant questions: What are my Warrants? – “To believe there is an issue with the criminal justice system, you must recognize the problem as well as believe that cops are not trained to nflict physical abuse on citizens, they are trained to help the community and to only get physical when demonstrating self-defense. ” – “Of course believing that cops can be racially discriminating, means that you must believe racism is still a common problem in today’s society. ” What other warrants may underlie the ones I have identified? There were a few different warrants I could have made for my grounds. For example, the first I could have said that in order to believe that police are role models you must believe that in most situations cops do or have benefited the community in some way shape or form.
Am I prepared to stand behind my warrant, regardless of the opposing views? Yes. I truly believe in where I stand on this issue and I believe I have a strong argument. Backing Questions: What is my backing? – Cops must complete a two year degree before they can be a certified officer. – It’s still a big problem because people are not bringing enough attention to it for it to be recognized. Does my backing apply in all cases? Why or why not? Yes. My backing is aimed to back-up my warrants to the best of my ability. Abby Boyce English 1201
Professor McGehee 10/22/2012 Formal Outline I. “In the middle of broad daylight, August 28th, 2012, laid a man helpless and defenseless after being kicked, beat, and sprayed repeatedly with a chemical irritant. ” a. Refer to StarTribune article and discuss background/situation that happened b. Claim: Something needs to be done immediately to end the violence and inappropriate discipline being inflicted on our citizens. The harsh discipline we are discovering is being used more and more often should not be tolerated. II.
Cops, especially street cops, are supposed to be the role-models of the community and are hired to benefit the community, not harm it. a. Grounds: Give statistics from St. Paul homicide ratings b. Grounds: Define police brutality c. Grounds: Use quote from the StarTribune III. Warrant: To believe there is an issue with the criminal justice system, you must recognize the problem as well as believe that cops are not trained to inflict physical abuse on citizens, they are trained to help the community and to only get physical when demonstrating self-defense. a.
Backing: Cops must complete a two year degree before they can be a certified officer. The reason for this is so that they can learn the ethics that must be used while on duty as well as many other classes that teach the duties that must be performed and how to go about them. IV. Claim: We are discovering that most brutality is directed against minority groups or otherwise powerless populations. a. The importance of understanding racism in the context of police brutality needs to be brought to attention and is extremely out of line. b. Grounds: Quote CliffNotes. com V.
Warrant: Of course believing that cops can be racially discriminating, means that you must believe racism is still a common problem in today’s society. a. Backing: It’s still a big problem because people are not bringing enough attention to it for it to be recognized. b. Grounds: Use example that relates to my experience c. Grounds: Use CliffNotes quote VI. Qualifier: With all that said, there is only one exception to my argument which is, if a citizen threatens to use a lethal weapon on an officer or if a citizen gets physically violent against an officer, then physically restraining that person is reasonable and just.
In officer training schools they are taught to use self-defense when necessary. a. Once put into physical restraints or if the citizen has calmed down or promised to cooperate, the self-defense should end immediately. b. Officers can and should always remain on high alert though. VII. If we want our officers to be treated with respect, and our 911 systems to be effective to end crime, then police brutality should not be tolerated and should end immediately in order to keep citizens safe and ensured that our criminal justice system is working to benefit the community in a positive way. Abby Boyce
English 1201 Professor McGehee 10/22/2012 Police Brutality Awareness In the middle of broad daylight, August 28th, 2012, laid a man helpless and defenseless after being kicked, beat, and sprayed repeatedly with a chemical irritant. We later come to find out that man is named Eric Hightower, and according to the article “Police Brutality in the Age of YouTube” in the StarTribune, he has had previous run-ins with the law, but on August 28th his offense that caused the policeman (St. Paul officer Jesse Zilge) to violently kick and beat this man, while he lie on a St. Paul sidewalk, is unknown.
Shortly after the incident a video was posted on YouTube, which provided solid evidence that this cop was completely out of line. But it’s not the first time there have been issues with the morality and brutality of our local and nationwide officers. Something needs to be done immediately to end the violence and inappropriate discipline being inflicted on our citizens. The harsh discipline we are discovering is being used more and more often should not be tolerated. Cops, especially street cops, are supposed to be the role-models of the community and are hired to benefit the community, not harm it.
According to the St. Paul yearly analysis, in 2010 crime rates for homicides alone have shot up 9% since 2001. Many of those crimes may have been easily prevented if cops had been doing their job correctly and using appropriate punishment only when needed. Many citizens have become scared to call 911 and involve the police because they don’t trust the actions they will take. In reality, the police should be making you feel at ease and knowing you can call them for help should be something people should feel comfortable doing.
Police brutality is defined as the intentional use of excessive force by a police officer. It takes many forms, including physical abuse, verbal attacks, and psychological intimidation. In the most recent years, we are seeing more and more cops being put on trial for their violent conduct. The story of Eric Hightower is just one of the many recently reported and investigated stories of victimized citizens being put in physical harm by cops. It’s beginning to make many of us wonder how many times there have been incidents like this in the past that have never been reported.
It was brought to my attention more closely than ever when it was as stated in the StartTribune, “If an officer can kick someone in front of witnesses and a camera, how often do those types of attacks happen at night when cameras aren’t rolling? ” Of course, to believe there is an issue with the criminal justice system, you must recognize the problem as well as believe that cops are not trained to inflict physical abuse on citizens, they are trained to help the community and to only get physical when demonstrating self-defense.
Even when using self-defense should it ever be okay to kick someone, along with “slam someone’s head onto the car hood” (according to the StarTribune in the Hightower story)? The answer is no. If cops are supposed to be preventing physical abuse and fighting why on earth would it ever be okay for them to use it. Cops must complete a two year degree before they can be a certified officer. The reason for this is so that they can learn the ethics that must be used while on duty as well as many other classes that teach the duties that must be performed and how to go about them.
Knowing that, I have a very hard time believing there is any circumstance an officer could say that they were unaware their behavior was out of line. We are discovering that most brutality is directed against minority groups or otherwise powerless populations. Officers who engage in brutality rationalize their use of inappropriate force by claiming they are punishing those groups that threaten to disrupt the social order. The importance of understanding racism in the context of police brutality needs to be brought to attention and is extremely out of line.
Many police automatically regard racial minority group members as potentially dangerous regardless of their particular activities, gestures, or attire. This perception of racial minority citizens as “trouble” sometimes translates into racially discriminatory police behavior. According to CliffNotes. com, “In 1982, the federal government funded a “Police Services Study” in which over 12,000 randomly selected citizens were interviewed in three metropolitan areas. The study found that 13 percent of those surveyed had been victims of police brutality the previous year.
Yet only 30 percent of those who acknowledged such brutality filed formal complaints. ” I would be willing to bet that over 50% of those citizens, who endured the police brutality, are minorities or racially different from the cop that inflicted the abuse upon them. Of course believing that cops can be racially discriminating, means that you must believe racism is still a common problem in today’s society. Which in fact, it most definitely is. It’s still a big problem because people are not bringing enough attention to it for it to be recognized.
For example, before reading the article in the StarTribune and prior to taking a Criminal Justice class that focused on the racially discriminating cops, I had no idea this was even an issue. It needs to be brought in the public eye so that people can start voluntarily coming forward and so the problem can be solved nationwide. I believe we this is a realistic request and hope for our future, because recently Departments in some cities, for example, have adopted special training programs to reduce incidents of police brutality.
Other departments have formulated rules that limit the use of force by the police. Preventive control also requires supervising officers (for example, conducting surveillance of officers’ work) and disciplining those who violate departmental standards. A few amount of cities aroung the US are developing early warning systems to identify officers with high rates of citizen complaints. These incidents should be investigated, and if verified, the officers involved should be charged, disciplined, restrained, and/or counseled.
According to CliffNotes. com, “Pittsburgh, for example, launched a $1. 5 million computer system. It monitors every aspect of an officer’s professional life—from the number of citizen complaints filed against the officer to the race of every person the officer arrests. ” With all that said, there is only one exception to my argument which is, if a citizen threatens to use a lethal weapon on an officer or if a citizen gets physically violent against an officer, then physically restraining that person is reasonable and just.
In officer training schools they are taught to use self-defense when necessary. Many officers though, are abusing that privilege. Once put into physical restraints or if the citizen has calmed down or promised to cooperate, the self-defense should end immediately. This does not mean that the officer should not be on high alert, but physically, he or she should not be getting physical with the citizen. If we want our officers to be treated with respect, and our 911 systems to be effective to end crime, then police brutality should not be tolerated and should end mmediately in order to keep citizens safe and ensured that our criminal justice system is working to benefit the community in a positive way. Abby Boyce English 1201 Professor McGehee 10/22/2012
Citations CliffsNotes. com. Police Brutality. 21 Oct 2012 ;lt;http://www. cliffsnotes. com/study_guide/topicArticleId-10065,articleId-9975. html;gt;. Editorial Board, . “Police brutality in the age of YouTube. ” StartTribune. 09 2012: 1. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. ;lt;http://www. startribune. com/opinion/editorials/168689626. html? refer=y;gt;.

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