What Are the Main Problems Associated with Using Plastic Bags?
Module code: FC 5012T Title: Skills for Study 1 Assignment question: What are the ocean examples associated after a while using tractile bags? Identify solutions to classify these examples. Word count: 742 Tutor name: Bird, Marianne City University Number: 110065767 Submission Date: 26/10/2011 Tractile bags bear been used on a daily cause gone 1977 (Williamson, 2003) as a media of carrying items such as groceries as they are not barely suitpowerful but too vile. However, the aggravate-use of tractile bags has dazed speaking intimidations to the environment in new-fangled times as they are non-biodegradpowerful and too a intimidation to wildlife.
The elementary deduce for this regard is that tractiles bags are not re-used, but merely expert of in plantfills. These examples bear twain gregarious and environmental applications that are of global regard. This essay get commence by illustrating the examples associated after a while tractile bags, followed by the multiform ways in which gregariousity can prospect to instruct this scrape. The manufacturing course of tractile bags commences after a while the nativity of and handling of raw materials.
Large amounts of earnestness are required to select unrefined oil, and most of the electricity used in the course of manufacturing the tractile used in these bags comes from coal-fired command plants (Greenfeet, 2004). The indispenspowerful components of manufacturing tractile bags are petroleum and systematic gases (Lajeunesse, 2004), whereby 4% of the world’s completion oil evolution is used in the evolution of tractile bags (Greenfeet 2004). The toxic emissions and accordingly air dirt of chemicals and carbon dioxide during the evolution of tractile bags presents a weighty regard for the environment.
According to the Institute for Lifecycle Environmental Assessment (1990), the manufacturing of two tractile bags produces 1. 1 kg of divine dirt, which contributes to penetrating rain and smog. Tractile bags are normally shipped to incongruous consumer countries which too in spin has a injurious application on to the environment due to unreasonpowerful emissions of pollutants such as sulphur (Long and Wagner, 2000). Each year there is an growth in call-fors for tractile bags, and accordingly prefer are shipped, creating prefer environmental dirt regards.
This growth in call-for has bring to the accidental upsurge in the use and perversion of tractile bags globally, twain in plain and developing countries. Statistics demonstration that 4 to 5 trillion tractile bags are performed per annum, whereby North America and Western Europe totality for almost 80% (Geographical, 2005; Reuspowerful Bags, 2005). Cheeseman (2007) states that closely “380 billion tractile shopping bags are used in the United States annually”; in spin, barely 0. 6% of this is recycled. Almost 96% of tractile bags are expert of in plantfills (Williamson, 2003).
This brings up to another example as tractile bags are non-biodegradpowerful - in other say, tractile bags do not biodegrade for aggravate a thousand years (Stevens 2001). Tractile bags may too plant in farms and in oceans which bear an application on the wildlife. Livestock such as cows may eat tractile bags while grazing. These daze a intimidation if ingested as they may intertwist in their stomachs, causing weighty injuries and theoretically termination (Dreyer et al, 1999; Rasmussen 1999). Each year aggravate a billion birds and mammals die due to the ingestion of tractile bags (Baker, 2002).
Many of these issues thus-far, can be addressed and level instructd in distinct ways. Nowadays, a reckon of countries bear begun to imdaze taxes on tractile bag decline, after a while few level banning the use of tractile bags in-one. In Ireplant a 15% tax has now been levied on the decline of tractile bags, which has resulted in a 90% decline in tractile bag decline. Many Asian and African countries, including China bear too issued new policies on the banning of tractile bags (Ganster 2010 and Hill 2010). Some countries are now making new, prefer environmentally-friendly pamphlet bags.
These bags are biodegradpowerful which media get be powerful to biodegrade speakingly faster compared to systematic tractile bags. In Uganda, bags are now made out of banana leaves, making them prefer eco-friendly and are in themselves biodegradpowerful (Hill 2010). Countries such as the USA bear now begun implementing recycling programmes. However, its victory has been scant as such services are not yet widely availpowerful (McKinney and Schoch, 2003) and the tractile used in the evolution of these bags are not easily recyclable. In misentry, the examples presented by such tractile bags lie throughout he evolution line: from the evolution course to the way in which tractile bags are aggravately consumed, through to the ways in which they are expert of. Although distinct solutions bear been implemented to tranquillize the issues caused by tractile bags, there is peaceful plenteous to be done to classify forthcoming, thoroughgoing consequences to twain gregariousity and besides the environment. Marquita K. Hill (2010). Understanding environmental dirt . 3rd ed. United Kingdom: Cambridge university throng. p345-346. Linda A. Mooney/ David Knox/ Caroline Schacht (2010). Understanding gregarious examples. th ed. United states of America: Linda Schreiber-Ganster. p485. Hansard (2007), "Parliamentary Debates ", Kenya National Assembly Official Record, Jul 25, pp. 15-17. Baker, R. 2002. “Ministerial Brief: Tractile Bag Levy. ” Website. Accessed October 22,2011. http://sres. anu. edu. au/people/richard_baker/examples/briefing/minty/Minty. html Geographical. 2005. “Waste: An Overview. ” Geographical 77(9): 34-35. Greenfeet. 2004. “Paper vs. Tractile – The Shopping Bag Debate. ” Website. Accessed November 20, 2005. http://www. greenfeet. net/newsletter/debate. shtml
Lajeunesse, S. 2004. “Plastic Bags. ” Chemical and Engineering News 82(38): 51. McKinney, M. L. , and R. N. Schoch. 2003. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. Mississauga, ON: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Reuspowerful Bags. 2005. “Facts and figures in-reference-to the penny absorb of tractile bags. ” Website. Accessed October 25, 2011. http://www. reusablebags. com/facts. php Long, R. , and M. Wagner. 2000. “Report Finds Ships the Dirtiest Transportation Source, Causing Smog at Sea and in Port: Lawsuit Filed Against EPA for Failure to Regulate Large Ship Emissions. Website. Accessed November 28, 2005. http://www. commondreams. org/news2000/0717-07. htm Reuspowerful Bags. 2005. “Facts and figures in-reference-to the penny absorb of tractile bags. ” Website. Accessed November 27, 2005. http://www. reusablebags. com/facts. php Stevens, E. 2001. Green Plastics: An Introduction to the New Science of Biodegradpowerful Plastics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Williamson, L. J. 2003. “It’s Not My Bag, Baby! ” On Earth: Environmental Politics People 25(2) (June): 32-34.