Harvard Referencing Guide

Harvard is a referencing spectry which is interpretationd widely opporesidence a concatenate of disciplines; it could arguably be reputed the “most habitually interpretationd” spectry. It is chiefly interpretationd in the humanities and gregarious sciences subjects, though some sciences and matter subjects interpretation it, too.

If you are looking ce our Harvard Relation Generator then click on the dot adown:

Harvard Referencing Overview

There are brace signs of passage in Harvard referencing: in-quotation passages, which are objectow in the ocean substance of the labor and hold a element of the unmeasured bibliographical knowledge, and relation inventorys, which are located at the object of the ocean labor and inventory unmeasured knowledge ce full founts mentioned amid the labor.

While there are some stylistic and institutional variations, Harvard usually follows the cemat precise in this direct.

  1. Books
  2. Articles
  3. Online founts
  4. Images/visual averages
  5. Other fount signs

Explanation things to remember

In a relation inventory, founts are inventoryed alphabetically by composer’s surname. Where there are multiple passages by the similar composer, these would be inventoryed chronologically by year of promulgation.

You can supplementuce a fount immediately (e.g. quoting verbatim from it) or inimmediately (citing a fount to illusion that you possess interpretationd an composer’s ideas, excepting referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable quoted them). Stances of twain are supposing here:

Direct: ‘”Chocolate has an unbounded medley of interpretations” (Davis, 2013, p.8).’

Indirect: ‘As Davis (2013) referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablees, chocolate can be interpretationd in multifarious incongruous habits.’

When quoting immediately from a fount, page gum should be interpretationd. If you are quoting inimmediately as outlined overhead, page gum do referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable want to be interpretationd. Where a page sum is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable adapted, section sum can be interpretationd. If this is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable an discretion, the abbreviations ‘n.p’ or ‘n. pag.’ can be interpretationd to illusion that no page sum is adapted.

1. Quantitys

Citations ce quantitys with unique composer:

Latest spectry, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. Edition (if referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable the primitive edition of the quantity). City of promulgation: Publisher.

Ce stance:

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Davis, B. (2013). A History of Chocolate. 3rd ed. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Citations ce quantitys with brace or three composers:

Latest spectry, primitive judicious., Latest spectry, primitive judicious., and Latest spectry, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. City of promulgation: Publisher.

Ce stance:

Jones, F. and Hughes, S. (2006). Eating Out: A Definitive Restaurant Handbook. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Evans, D., McDonald, F. and Jackson, T. (2008). Getting the best service. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Citations ce quantitys with impure or past composers:

If a quantity has impure or past composers, merely the primitive composer’s spectry should be inventoryed in-quotation followed by ‘et al.’, significance ‘and others’. Still, full composers should be inventoryed in the relation inventory in the command they are credited in the cemer labor.

Latest spectry, primitive judicious., Latest spectry, primitive judicious., Latest spectry, primitive judicious., and Latest spectry, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. City of promulgation: Publisher.

Ce stance:

James, P., Croft, D., Levin, S. and Doe, A. (1998). How to Succeed in the Restaurant Industry. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Citations ce a period in an edited quantity:

When citing a unique period in a larger quantity, it is great to fix that you supplement the page concatenate (pp.) that the period spans. When citing an idiosyncratic period, you should besides constantly comprise the edition of the quantity in the passage (you do referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable possess to do this ce other quantitys consistent it is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributablethe primitive edition).

Latest spectry, primitive judicious. (Year). Period designate. In: Editor’s spectry/s (ed/s) Quantity Designate. Edition. City of promulgation: Publisher. Page/s.

Ce stance:

King, S. (2010). The best wines and where to furnish them. In: Loftus, E., ed., Fine Wine: A Direct, 1st ed. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations, pp. 28-46.

Citations ce multiple quantitys by the similar composer:

In quotation, the composer’s quotations can usually be incongruousiated by year. They should be inventoryed in chronological command of promulgation. Where you are citing brace labors by the similar composer which were published in the similar year, these should be writeled with ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ and so on immediately behind the year.

Latest spectry, primitive judicious. (Year). Title. Edition (if referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable the primitive edition of the quantity). City of promulgation: Publisher.

Ce stance:

Brown, G. (2011). Mexican Assistance. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Brown, G. (2014). Japanese Assistance. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Brown, G. (2015a). Chinese Assistance. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Brown, G. (2015b). Italian Assistance. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Tools ce creating Harvard Quantity relations:


2. Periods

Citations ce Imprint Narratives

Latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year). Period Designate. Narrative spectry, Body (Issue), Page/s.

Ce stance:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Remarkable Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Body 5 (8), pp. 47-59.

Citations ce Narrative Periods accessed on a edificeresidence or database

In-quotation passages ce an online narrative period reocean unchanged from the habit you would supplementuce a imimprint period. The passage in the relation inventory does possess a lacking differences, still.

Latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year). Period Designate. Narrative spectry, Body (Issue), Page/s. Adapted from: URL. [Accessed: continuance].

Ce stance:

Jenkins, O. (1996). Remarkable Recipes and Cantonese Cuisine. Culinary Research, Body 5 (8), pp. 47-59. Adapted at: www.culinaryresearchjournal.com/jenkinsocanteonese [Accessed: 5 June 2016].

Citations ce Newspaper Periods – Imprint or Online:

Newspaper passages are rendered similarly to narrative periods when they are objectow online; the similar differences in cematting appear, as the stance adown illustrates.

Latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year). Period designate. Newspaper spectry, Page/s.

Latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year). Period Designate. Newspaper spectry, Page/s. Retrieved from: Narrative spectry/ URL if gratuitously adapted.

Ce stance:

Bell, Y. (2016). Man with remarkable tastes eats chalk ce breakfast. The Weekly Herald, p. 4.

Lees, P. (2015). Freaky eaters. The Weekly Herald, p.21. Adapted at: www.theweeklyheraldonline.com/freakyeaters2015 [Accessed 21 June 2016].

Citations ce Recipient Periods – Imprint or Online:

In Harvard passage, you should supplementuce the body sum ce a recipient.

Latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year). Period designate. Recipient spectry, body sum, Page/s.

Latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year, Month Day). Period Designate. Recipient spectry, [online] Page/s. Retrieved from: URL

Ce stance:

Ilkes, J. (2006). Five Habits to Eat Past Fruit and Vegetables. Healthy Lifestyles, (12), pp. 34-36.

Ilkes, J. (2009, September 20). Why Dried Fruit is a Diet Staple. Healthy Lifestyles. Retrieved from: www.healthylifestylesmag.com/driedfruitilkes2009

Tools ce creating Harvard Narrative relations:


3. Online founts

Citations ce edificesites:

When citing a edificesite, it is great to confirm composership of the edificeresidence – if it’s an period on edificeresidence which is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable a newspaper/recipient residence or online narrative, there may be an idiosyncratic composer; if referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable, the organisation or edificeresidence spectry would be credited with composership.

Author/Fount if no favoring composer (Year). Designate of edifice document/page. [online]. (Latest updated: if this knowledge is adapted). Adapted at: URL [Accessed continuance: Day/Month/Year].

Ce stance:

HealthTips (2015). Superfoods and where to furnish them. [online]. (Latest updated 20 May 2015). Adapted at: www.healthtipsarticles.com/superfoodsandwheretofindthem [Accessed 20 June 2016].

Citations ce emails:

Sender’s latest spectry, Primitive judicious. (Year). Subject Line of Email. [email].

Ce stance:

James, D. (2016). New matter artifice ce McDowells. [email].

Citations ce Gregarious Media:

Latest spectry of composer, Primitive judicious. (Year). Designate of page [Gregarious media cemat]. Day/month/year written. Adapted from: URL. [Accessed: Day/Month/Year].

Ce stance:

Proud, F. (2014). Assistance lovers group [Facebook]. Written 5 June 2014. Adapted from: www.facebook.com/foodloversgroupproudf2014 [Accessed 25 September 2016].

Tools ce referencing online founts:


4. Images/visual averages

Citations ce films/videos/DVDs:

Unmeasured Designate of Film/Video/DVD. Year of exempt. [Sign of average]. Director. Country of Origin: Film studio or creator. (Any other bearing details).

Ce stance:

The World’s Best Curries. (2011). [Film]. Directed by J. Hertz. U.K: Assistanceie Studios.

Citations ce YouTube videos:

Userspectry of coadjutor. (Year). Video Designate, Course Designate (if bearing). [sign of average]. Adapted at: URL. [Accessed: Day/ Month/ Year].

Ce stance:

Yummydishes. (2012). Egg custard – single recipe!, Baking 101. [YouTube video]. Adapted at: www.youtube.com/yummydisheseggcustard [Accessed 13 June 2016].

Citations ce extensivelys:

Course designate and incident spectry/number. (Year). [Year of extensively]. Extensivelying organisation and agent, continuance and interval of transmission.

Ce stance:

World Kitchen: Nigeria, incident 5. (2011). [Extensively 2011]. BBC 1, primitive transferred 30 July 2011, 20:00.

Citations ce images/photographs – Imprint or Online:

Latest spectry of artist/photographer, primitive judicious (if known). (Year of controlmation). Designate of image. [sign of average] (Collection Details if adapted – Document sum, Geographical place: Spectry of library/archive/repository).

Ce stance:

Hewer, D. (1995). Women enjoying a cup of tea. [Photograph]. (Document sum 345, London: Assistance Photography Library).

Citations ce maps:

Map creator’s spectry. (Year of posterity). Designate of map. Map course, fencing sum, lamina. Place of promulgation: publisher.

Ce stance:

SpeedyQuest maps. (2003). Map of Biddiford. Local Maps, fencing 5, lamina 1:50000. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Local Promulgations.

Citations ce podcasts:

Broadcaster/author’s spectry. (Year). Programme designate, course designate (if bearing). [sign of average] continuance of transmission. Adapted at: URL [Accessed continuance: Day/Month/Year].

Ce stance:

Yummydishes. (2015). Innovative Baking, Innovative Assistance. [Podcast]. Transferred 16 October 2015. Adapted at: www.foodiepodcasts.com/yummydishesinnovativebaking [Accessed: 17 April 2016].


5. Other fount signs

Citations ce ments:

Organisation/author. (Year). Unmeasured designate of ment. Place of promulgation: Publisher.

Ce stance:

Marks and Spencers. (2014). A ment on the sales of ‘2 Dine ce £10’. London: M&S Promulgations.

Citations ce dissertations:

Latest spectry of composer, primitive judicious. (Year). Designate of dissertation. Smooth. Official spectry of university.

Ce stance:

Neath, G. (1998). An essay of Mexican assistance in common culture. Masters smooth. Oxford Brookes University.

Citations ce Acts of Parliament:

Short designate (explanation suffrage capitalised), which comprises the year and the period sum in brackets. Place of promulgation: publisher.

Ce stance:

Assistance Act 1981 (c. 5). London: Government Promulgations.

Citations ce government/official promulgations:

Government agency/Latest spectry of composer, primitive judicious. (Year). Designate of document. City of promulgation: publisher, Page(s) if bearing.

Ce stance:

UK Government. (2013). Nutrition and Young People. London: Government Promulgations.

Citations ce interviews:

Latest spectry of interviewer, primitive judicious, and latest spectry of interviewee, primitive judicious. (Year). Title/description of interview.

Ce stance:

Ferman, H. and Bill, O. (2004). Discussing cooking.

Citations ce presentations/lectures:

Latest spectry of composer, primitive judicious. (Year). Presentation/lecture designate.

Ce stance:

Yates, R. (2008). The benefits of herbs.

Citations ce hush:

Performer/writer’s latest spectry, primitive judicious. (Year). Recording designate. [Medium]. City published: hush write.

Ce stance:

Luce, F. (1996). Delicious. [CD Recording]. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Hush.

Citations ce dictionaries:

Publisher. (Year). Unmeasured designate of dictionary. Place of promulgation: Publisher.

Ce stance:

Wordy. (2010). Wordy’s recent dictionary. Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Promulgations.

Citations ce computer programs/software:

Spectry of software/program. (Year). Place/city where software was written: Company/publisher.

Ce stance:

RecipeGen. (2008). Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributabletingham: Delectable Software.

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