Male Consumer Culture And Purchase Intentions In Pakistan’s Fashion Industry
Scope of Male Consumer Culture in Pakistan
This study attempts to examine and analyze the effect of male consumer culture on purchase intentions for fashion apparel. The construct of the study were measured using questionnaires and interviews. The data were collected from above 100 male people of varying ages from 15 to 30 year olds. Also brand analysis was done on few of the emerging as well as well established fashion brands in Pakistan,
The results reveal that there is a big scope for this type of industry. There is a gap between the consumer and the manufacturer, Improvements are vital for the blooming of the male consumer culture so as to increase their purchase intentions towards male fashion attire, Also to bring the attire to the masses not just the elites.
Consumer culture refers to the buying and spending of clienteles. In this case the clientele is the males of Pakistan. That is the males in Pakistan’s spending and earnings will be monitored so as to get a better view of their consumer culture.
In Pakistan, the per capita income in 2009-2010 was $1051 per year. That is an average person acquired an income of $1051 which is 96,228.10 PKR. This means that an average person in Pakistan earns around 8,000 PKR per month. The earning as you can see is very low compared to the increasing inflation. Thus the earning of basic male is not enough for them to be able to spend excessively on fashion apparel. In conclusion the male consumer culture in Pakistan is non-existent. The average males do not spend money on themselves by buying fashion apparel but the elites of the society spend plenty on fashion attires.
The emergence of the global market has favoured the growth of the fashion industries, causing a change in lifestyles, consumer preferences and purchase intentions towards fashion apparel. Most fashion designers are trying to bridge intercultural differences but disregarding fifty percent of their possible market. That is the male consumers of fashion apparel.
Both male and females have given boost to the fashion industry, as it strives to make identification of Pakistani culture. The culture of Pakistan has always been the heart and soul for all fashion designers in the Pakistani fashion industry. Pakistani Fashion Industry has always been influenced from the culture and heritage which is actually the main identity of Pakistan.
Nowadays the focus has shifted to the fusion of South Asian and Central Asian Fashion styles along with the delicacy of eastern touch. The fashion Industry is responsible for building the fashion sense and fashion trends amongst all age groups.
In Pakistan, male fashion attire comes in hype only once a year, that is the summer season; which seems non-existent when compared to its counterpart. The female fashion apparel is in boom throughout the year. There is an untapped market of males (adults and teenagers) waiting for fashion apparel
Fashion can be viewed in having both positive and negative values.
Majority of people ignore fashion and believe it to be inferior or as creating a false or mistaken desires and as propagating fake and foolish views. They downgrade it to being purely cosmetic and largely unreal and artificial. This effectively dams fashion and its image.
Income and Affordability of Fashion Apparel in Pakistan
The positive view, largely ignored by the masses, places fashion with the creative arts. More importantly, it sees fashion design as a tool of cultural production as fashion and clothing play an essential part in the world that we live in, both in the formation of value at the manufacturing stage and the adding up of value at the end-use stage. As fashion becomes a crucial part of our everyday life it gains special status.
Fashion and Politics have always been together. One is not enough without the other. The very word “fashion” is derived from the Latin “factio”, which gave birth to the politically sensed “faction”. The word “faction” applies to divergences and clashes among groups with further implication of the control and exercise of power by them. This also entails the surfacing of radical groups who form their own sub-culture within a culture that they find objectionable. The largely noticeable signifier of their distinctions or their rebellion comes across in their clothing i.e. in fashion.
Fashion can help gauge the nature, ambitions and views of people by the way they choose to dress. For example, we know what principles a man wearing a green turban over white shalwar kameez (the shalwar raised above the ankle) symbolizes. In this way, fashion speaks culture and beliefs and becomes the instrument whereby individuals declare their diversity.
Fashion also becomes a signifier of class structures. Such is the nature of social class that the elite never mix well with the masses. We live under hierarchy structures, whether we like to admit as much or not, and we use fashion to not only protect our differences but also to legitimize them. Wearing expensive outfit becomes a proclamation that closes these differences once and for all. Hence, fashion is used as a barrier to keep away insignificant citizens from the elite.
However, the masses use it as a link to become nearer to the elites. This explains the pathological rush towards branded designer labels, taking place nowadays.
According to Frieha Altaf, “Fashion in Pakistan is and always has been for the elite. It has two effects: a trickle-up effect, when street fashion comes into the majority; and a trickle-down effect, when fashion moves from the elite to the masses. Excluding the eighties when Afghani kurtas, shalwars and jewelry became the rage, fashion in Pakistan has always been trickle-down”.
Over the world, fashion has not gone strictly one way or another. It has been used to convey alternative feelings through looks such as punk and grunge while it has legitimized the organization by classic and controlled styles.
Fashion has a cultural profile that saves it from being inconsequential. Those who abhor differences of principles and class are generally the ones that view fashion negatively. They call it petty and hold it responsible for creating foolish needs. Those who come to accept that differences amongst people will remain, can see fashion for what it really is: an passage way for creativity and imagination, an instrument of cultural production and the way by which cultural disparity find peaceful voices.
Female vs. Male Fashion Apparel Market in Pakistan
Here is a brief glance at the fashion through though the years.
Fashion is affected by what’s going on in the country. Depressions and recessions, wars and revolutions; are some major factors. As the country is affected by certain dilemma, there is always hype in fashion.
Two great actions during these centuries had astounding effects on the fashion. First were the crusades, which allowed those, involved to be exposed to attires of many lands. The crusader’s exposure to attires of the Eastern cultures resulted in the adding up of generous detailing to Western culture.
The second movement was the beginning of the Gothic Architecture. The Hennin, a hat that was worn during the fifteenth century, was very in style and took a variety of shapes. One of the most fashionable shapes was cone-like, a reflection of the spires on the Gothic Cathedrals.
In the fourteenth century, heraldry was at its peak: Coats of Arms marked by family histories were displayed on the men as well as on the set of clothes of their horses.
During the Renaissance of the sixteenth century, fashion was marvelous and uncanny. The discovery of the New World brought great wealth to Europe. This was mirrored in the stunning fabrics, laces, precious stones, and furs of the time. Gold thread was often woven into fabric, making it extremely stiff and the garments less fluid. Jewels were often attached to the garments and lace added as a finishing touch.
Two great Queens of the century of this century influenced fashion. They were Elizabeth I of England and Catherine de Medice of France. Both popularized the bell silhouette by wearing farthingales. Medice boasted a sixteen inch waistline added padding to her hips and sleeves to emphasized her wasp waist. She also inspired the medici collar, a lace ruff that showed much cleavage. Elizabeth I owned over 3000 dresses at the time of her death. She popularized the cartwheel farthingales in England, all tall-crowned bonnets with small brims. She also popularized wigs due to a loss of her hair.
In the 1665 and 1666 England was inundated with both plagues and fires which took their minds off fashion. This allowed the French to gain prestige. France became the world’s fashion leader under the rules of the “Sun King,” Louis XIV. France became the center of textile production and fashion innovation.
In the beginning of the seventeenth century, there was very little change in women’s fashion. Women began to display color in their garments by slashing the front of their outer skirts and attaching it at the hips, revealing the underskirt.
The grand designs of the seventeenth century were abandoned in the eighteenth for lighter and more delicate colors and patterns. Interest in the men’s fashion faded slowly because of the age of Louis XIV. However, new life was breathed into fashion after the death of Louis XIV.
The French Revolution brought on outlandish fashions, reflecting the unrest of the times. The popular redingote became so tight that the buttons could no longer be fastened. Long tails were added to the back, a high turnover collar and wide lapel were popular, and button was added in a double-breasted style. Trousers were completely visible and ankle length.
Fashion Industry and its Cultural Significance
At the beginning of the eighteenth century, women of the French court dominated fashion. Louis XV’s mistress, Madame de Pompadour, was a lover of the arts. She was faithful to the French way of dress, but added her own influence. She began the fashion of wearing bows on the stomacher at the elbow and of having frilled neckbands. She edged her neckline with a lace known as tatez-y. She combed her hair straight back from the brow, with a lift, thus, the pompadour hairstyle began.
The nineteenth century began with the continuation of the French Revolution. The revolution caused a reorganization of society and a rise to the middle class, allowing all classes to dress similarly. During the revolution, France lost its position as head of the textile production allowing England to take over. However, on Napoleon’s coronation as emperor, France regained its lead. Napoleon did not strive to make France the leading textile producer because of his love of fashion, but because of his love of fashion, the economy of France benefited.
The English displayed their fine cutting and tailoring techniques, beautiful fabrics, and sense of grooming during this century. The nineteenth century was called the age of dandies, or well dressed men, and their leader was George “Beau” Brummel.
The twentieth century brought constant change. Important influences on fashion included movies, television, World War II, youth, and the women’s movement.
The 1910s influence of early movie stars
After World War I, the hobble skirt disappeared. The 1920s produced the age of Jazz, the Charleston, and the flapper with her waist dropped tubular dress, long pearl neckline, and bobbed hair. Undergarments included camisoles, panties, teddies, and brassieres that flattened the figure for a more masculine look. Cosmetic and make were also being used.
When the depression hit in 1929, hemlines became longer. The unsure economic time spawned the harder-chief hemline. During this time, women could not afford to buy garments, so the relied heavily on home sewing.
The 1940s were influenced by World War II. The occupation of France forced some of the great fashion houses to close temporarily. Women reflected a uniform look with padded shoulders, shorts skirts, and nipped-in waistlines. In 1942, the United States government passed law L-85. The last set the following standards for garment manufacturing: no patch pocket, two in hems, no cuffs on pants, three and one half yards of fabric per garment, no metal closings because they were needed for the war. After the war ended in 1947, designer houses were reopened and Dior introduced a style called the “New Look.” The “New Look” had a natural shoulder, small waistline, and a longer, fuller skirt. Women happily accepted the “New Look” when the L-85 law was ended. This was this only time in history the hemline was literally changed overnight.
The 1950s brought about the sloppy bobby socks, sneakers, and the poodle skirt, a fun time for women’s fashion. Many actresses set fashion trends. Marilyn Monroe and Jayne Mansfield brought attention to the full bustline with the help of the Merry widow, an undergarment that pulled in the waist and pushed up the bust. Audrey Hepburn made the undernourished look fashionable by pulling her hair back into a ponytail and wearing black leotards and ballet slippers.
Fashion as a Signifier of Political and Social Class Structures
Fashion for the youth in the mid 50s was influenced greatly by Elvis Presley, James Dean, and Martin Brando. Their influences was seen in the leather jackets, pompadour hairstyles, dungarees, and the popular white tee shirts. Young children’s clothes were inspired by television and movie stars such as Roy Rogers and Dale Evans, as well as Davy Crockett’s coonskin cap. Teenagers also watched American Bandstand to see what their favorite dancers were wearing.
In menswear, the 50s were known as the “Man in the Gray Flannel Suit” era. This term derived form a book by Sloan Wilson. The younger men wore the Ivy league Oxford shirt, Oxford shoes, and narrow ties. The businessmen attire was a gray slack cut suit with narrow lapels, striped tie, wing-tip shoes, and gray fedora hat.
The 1960 was known as the pop or nod decade: coordinated costumed, miniskirts, and pantsuits for women. The strongest fashion innovator of the 60s was the first Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. Her clean cut simple style was accepted and copied by women of all economic levels. For the young women of the 60s an English designer named Mary Quant was the trend setter. Mary created the very popular miniskirt in 1962. The Beatles came to the United States in 1964 and the British influence invaded fashion as well as music. The art world was flooded with bright, bold prints, and optics including dots and stripes.
This modern art influenced the mod fashion look, was also known as the Carnaby Street look. This look was expressed by two famous British models Sean “the Shrimp” Shrimpton and Lesley “Twiggy” Hornesby. The fashionable go-go boots were introduced by Andre Couvreges, also a shocking touch to fashion was added by Rudi Gernreich’s transparent blouses and topless bathing suits. In 1966, a French designer Yves Saint Laurent introduced the women’s tailored pantsuit. In 1969, women were dealing with many hemlines. They were offered, the mini, the midi, and the maxi as a choice. Many women stuck with pantsuits and favor the miniskirts.
The 1960s also saw the hippie look for both men and women. This look included jeans decorated with patches, paint, silver, studs, and embroidery, and a chambray work shirt that was decorated a well. New trend setters along with love beads were Rock stars including Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, and Jefferson Airplane. Men wore long hair with bright color clothing and the suit and tie was replaced
The 1970s introduced us to men’s leisure, bold neckties, double-knit jacket, and pants flared at bottoms. Polyester went to the extreme in the leisure suit, a two piece suit for men. The suit consisted of slacks and a jacket a large collar and top stitching. A bright flared shirts was worn beneath the jacket. Some people did not care for the leisure suit at all. The tee shirt became popular for both men and women. White was abandoned in flavor of bright color with slogans printed on the front.
Women of the early 70s wore hot pants, a collaboration of mini skirts and the pantsuit. Jeans were still popular, but the new hip hugger style with the waistband on the hip bone was becoming more popular. The 70s accessories included the chunky platform shoes. The hot pants were the last breath of outlandish look of the 1960s. The romantic Edwardian look became fashionable in new long lengths. Millions of Gunne Sax dresses were sold as prom dresses as well as wedding dresses. A California designer by the name of Jessica McClintock introduced this look. Jeans were still popular, but another drastic change such as bleached spots embroidery and tie dyed jeans were also cut up in many styles.
Trickle-up and Trickle-down Effect of Fashion
In 1973, designer Diane Von Furstenbery popularized the Versatile jersey wrap dress. John T. Malloy set the standards of correct office attire for both sexes in his dress for success book. The professional look included classic suits for both male and females. The suits were often produced in the natural fibers and neutral colors. Women joining the work force made classic styles suits popular. The economic recession encouraged classic styles and women would be less likely to spend money would be less likely to spend money on fade fashion. The popularity of movies created popular looks. Saturday Night Fever spawned the disco look for both sexes. Annie Hall popularized the baggy look for women. Star Wars encouraged the wearing of capes and flat boots. Grease brought back the 50s look.
The aim of this study is to highlight the effects of globalization and media influences on the male consumer culture and their impact on purchase patterns toward male fashion apparel in Pakistan. The professionals’ opinions and views also documented in this report showing the satisfaction of their male consumer in terms of the perceived quality and fashion forwardness of their brand of apparel.
H1: Modern male consumer culture has an effect on purchase intentions towards male fashion apparel.
H0: Modern male consumer culture does not affect purchase intentions towards male fashion apparel.
The term fashion, in general, suggests the trends that a certain product goes through (Bakwell et al., 2006).
Traditional clothing practice is mostly united to the common preferences of ethnic dressing. The modern fashion apparel marketplace has therefore been built on the principle that ethnic dressing is decisively positioned at the spirit of a traditional culture whose elegant fabrics have been uplifted as convenience apparel. This verdict is guarded by work utilizing the communal value and lifestyle system, which derive the consumer marketplace on the foundation of personality traits that result consumer behavior.
Fashion apparel has made up an image in the market by placing designs under attack at the more obsessive male and female. It is argued that changes in customer culture provide a incentive to dynamic modernization in the arena of individual taste and consumption. Such vitality in consumer preferences is measured as part of an cultural system and is determined by continuous modification in values and lifestyle system. Consumer principles such as functionality, fitness for reason and efficiency considerably contribute to powerful cultural transformation and recognizing appropriate fashion to deliberately fit with lifestyles. The increasing technology-led clothing selling is one of the main stimulants for suggesting change in fashion and purchaser culture. The Automatic Made-to-Measure scheme for attire products, established through computer imitation in large stores and way of life centers, plays a key role in generating provocation toward fashion apparel. A freeform design stage is adopted by clothes designers, manufacturers and retailers to symbolize the complex numerical models of apparel goods. Apparel products are fundamentally designed with orientation to features of the individual body, and thus contribute to a recurrent set of features as the human model. Consumers lean in the direction of purchasing such apparel that are mainly sold as fashion apparel.
Consumer culture on fashion wear is influenced by lifestyle and value simulations by fast product experience. Fashion retailers have adopted personalization to effectively marketplace a broad variety of stylish products, such as eyeglasses, bicycle, coffee, greeting cards and clothes. The purpose to purchase fashion products is different across cultures. shopper preference and worth placed on fashion apparel is mostly inclined by the social separation of products and self-worth of the consumer. Apparel is often worn for its symbolic value showing the personality and position of the user. When the apparel has a fashion brand, it may seem as an ostentatious flaunt of wealth. Thus, consumers are provoked by a longing to make an impression on others with their capability to pay high prices for prestigious apparel. Such personality extents often play a significant role in changing the consumer culture towards brand buying behavior of useful goods. Fashion clothing brands are perceived by customers as high-status brands encompassing numerous physical and psychological values, such as apparent conspicuous importance, perceived distinctive value, perceived societal value, perceived hedonic value and apparent quality value. Expenditure patterns are mainly governed via the social value of the manufactured goods, which determines the purchase intentions, customer attitude or perception on brand or publicity slogan. Consumer knowledge with high socio-economic authority perceptions create qualitatively different psychological motive towards purchasing fashion apparel that expand unique utilization patterns.
Personalization of fashion apparel drives sense of worth among consumers and increases social values. Designers have a considerable impact on the achievement or collapse of fashion apparel and accessories. It has been pragmatic that demographic and psychographic drivers control frequency and levels of spending on purchasing fashion apparel. The buying inclination of female consumers is advanced than that of male customers, significantly motivating their spending on fashion apparel. Such behavior is also determined by the fashion admirer ship. The younger generation in the present situation has higher buy frequency, fashion fan ship and desire buying as compared with other followers in culture. Buying enjoyment of customers in order to place apart from associate consumers has also been a well-built behavioral motivator for style apparel manufacturers. Fashion apparel clients have shown a constructive attitude in the direction of exotic fashion apparel goods and higher buy intention. It has been pragmatic that customer’s receptiveness toward purchasing fashion apparel show highly developed cognitive motivations, and a buying orientation diverse from their group. Lead shoppers enjoy shopping extra and are not as careful, traditional or old-fashioned as cohorts.
The cultural transform in buying apparel from cheap brands to fashion brands in up-and-coming markets has been turned into a family environment. It has been seen that parental and sibling influences reduce with age, although peer and media influence increase with age. Television and celebrity also take part in a significant responsibility in influencing adolescents’ fashion choices, irrespective of gender. Two between the most common ways of media that children mainly use are fashion magazines and television, while teens are first and foremost influenced by visual merchandising, practical understanding and spotting fashion apparel consumers.
Shopping actions of consumers is also inclined by the attribute of the community cognitive theories that clarify how variables like self-regulation and efficacy express spending performance and conclude consumer lifestyles. Merchandise attributes influence shopper perceptions of individual significance of a merchandise or service to their desires. Consumer preferences for merchandise attributes are considerably linked to their way of life. The lifestyle theory informs us that urban consumer alleged hedonic attributes and societal identity factors establish their way of shopping. The shopping activities of customers are determined by social, cost-effective and relations factors. Purchasing ambiance, ads and sales promotions increase before shopping actions. The social learning theory tells us this fact as constructive reinforcement, and it happens when a performance (response) is done by a favorable incentive that makes the frequency of that behavior higher. In the theoretical foundations of the community learning theory, responsive conditioning and some observational knowledge empirically support approach of considerate normative human growth also the etiology of psychosocial harms.
Family and outdoor lifestyle and morals drive customer culture on fashion brands and fashion attire.
Store brand response
Stores and lifestyle centers extend their clothing store brands to create store devotion among customers. Store brands are kept in these stores with the fashion attire brands. The altering dynamics of the fashion world have forced producers to aim at inexpensive marketing strategies and elasticity in design, hence improving speed of infiltration in the market to increase competitive advantage. The idea of throw away or speedy fashion started in 1990 in the worldwide marketplace, which tells us that speedy fashion changes manufacturers to retailers then consumers. Brands are emerging swiftly in the fashion marketplace owing to the prompt growth of fashion.
Fashion brands are planned and made up by considering customer perceptions on the stores style. The shopping fulfillment of fashion clothing includes customers perceptions for the attributes of the store as well as one-sided evaluations of goods purchased from the store by the customers from the stores by themselves or their fellows. Store brands have a large impact derived from word-of-mouth communication. However, comeback to brands show us to be extra hard in nature than a simple moving summary of the relative positive and negative sensation during expenditure experience.
Another feature that attempts in changing the consumer choice on store brands is the acknowledgment of the role of store salesmen in a put on the market environment. It has been experiential that successful salespeople not only pressure the shopping procedure but may also pressure consumers to control their store benefaction. Consumers may dispose of one store brand to go after specific sales and examine personnel to an innovative store brand.
The sell stores play a most important position in influencing customers for both store and manufacturer brands. Attitude towards the promoted brands is been characterize by positive store image, smart consumer self-perception, need for association and attitude towards the money power-prestige and anxiety. Attitude of consumers in the direction of store brands is affirmed by more optimistic store image, price is an advantage, range of products are to exercise buying options, and loyalty as well as trust-related factors.
Consumers build up loyalty for brand fashion apparel bearing in mind the store image and casual communication among fellow shoppers.
Increasing trend in the direction of carrying store brands in a clothing retailing segment with rising significance in terms of market share. Reports show the effect that the sales of store brands explanation for approximately one-fifth of the sum volume of sales in Pakistan. Manufacturers make brands accessible in a variety of stores, and they do not influence loyalty to a meticulous store. Own fashion apparel brands on the contrary are supposed to possess the authority to enhance faithfulness in reference to the store they are linked with. The brand name therefore influences customers in general fineness product perceptions.
Success of store-branded group depends, in resemblance with the brand extension theory, on the professed quality of the parent brand and the fit among the parent brand and the sub-brand category. It is well thought-out for the essential image of the store.
Studies observed that store brands force a positive association between customer’s knowledge with and loyalty for the retailer’s own brand, and consumer’s loyalty to the seller results to the competitive advantage of the store brand. Although the buy intentions of clients toward store brands relate unquestionably to advanced loyalty for the retailer, the scope of a relationship comes down to consumer choices owing to the degree of individuality of store brands bounded by the consumer’s shopping trolleys.
Customers often understand that at any time the gap among store brands of manufacturer brands on fashion clothing gets slighter with consider to quality, perceived value and self-confidence, price in the end becomes the only obviously distinctive characteristic. Customer decision on buying fashion clothing is also govern with the price understanding issue to a huge extent. In these circumstances, sellers have the chance to use store brands in the procedure of ‘branding’ in the store method.
The store brands for fashion apparel in a large number of markets have been preferential by a set of factors that comprise actions by manufacturer and distributors on price and delineation, market competition at both manufacturer and retailer stage, and the economic-financial results of the last for the manufactured goods categories in which there effort with the store brands.
Relatively low prices, assortment of designs and image of all the stores motivate customers to decide the store brands for buying fashion clothing.
Fashion attire has a short invention lifespan and is predisposed largely by celebrity promotions, visual merchandizing and store ambience. The multi-channel systems of brand building and differentiation at regional and local levels are support by cultural forums in the local markets coerce the purchase intentions of customers. In addition to retail stores, fashion and design based industrial actors also give to creating images and mythology that support customer’s orientation toward buying fashionable apparel.
Purchase intentions of customers for fashion attire are subjective by psychodynamics and social factors. Consumer thoughts on buying fashion attire are based on five factors: perceptional management and perceived role models in society, matching clothing status to employment and workplace ambience, socialization with peers and people they like, self-esteem and fun, and courteous treatment in society.
Fashion magazines have turn out to be emblematic of the feminism, a appearance of ‘third-wave’ feminist engagement which re values the behavior and wellbeing usually associated with femininity, such as something like knitting, fashion clothing and make-up.
Fashion magazines are an ideal medium to persuade fashion adjustment within the better thesis of the worldwide local effects. These magazines down with television fashion shows persuade customers on the procedure of fashion adjustment, which begins with manufactured goods conceptualization and self worth in the society.
As women’s buy performance is very different from men’s, it is necessary for businesses that targeted female customers to make shifts in advertising strategy and comprise factors other than socio cultural distinctiveness. Fashion implicated female consumers are measured as the influencers and legitimists of the fashion acceptance process.
Purchase purpose for fashion apparel is principally influenced by the social and cultural movements and media broadcasts that drive participation with the goods and message.
Celebrity-based promotions have become the most popular for approaching fashion clothing in the market, and include celebrity-owned brands and celebrity-anchored brands. Fashion apparel, accessories and the perfumes may be seen as the best examples of celebrity being with participation in product endorsement. The relation among fashion presentation and the celebrity advertisements in and out of the media appears to be a responsive of the promotional attempt by manufacturers. Although, such a endorsement approach has a strong hold in triggering the arousal to the purchase intentions among customers. The popular request of the celebrity drives the sales of fashion clothing which then significantly leads into the brand.
One study shows to us that the customer attitudes in the direction of a promoted product are taken by the attractiveness and image of the celebrity, also expressions of the communication. Accordingly, the buying intentions of the customers are influenced by the products characteristics, price and the endorser presentation as seeming by the customers. The celebrity support can significantly motivate customer purchase and their attitudes via both direct and indirect effects throughout the product-attribute and hence construct.
The fashion cycle is pointed down since the increasing competition; manufacturers endorse their brands with the help of countless agents, as well as celebrities. In the past, fashion used to be a centralized industry where there weren’t many new trends they were diffused from one single location. The Paris Collections offered by a small network of couturiers became the trends that everyone in the world imitated. Nevertheless, this process has now become decentralized, and now fashion is originated from many different sources and is intensely influenced by admired culture, celebrities and customers by themselves, who, in many of the cases, gave inspiration to the designers in the growth of their own collections.
Some studies show that commercials using celebrities enhanced the customer’s likelihood of purchasing the brands being advertised.
Celebrities who do promotions of fashion apparel present a significant boost in purchase intentions which is because the customers are eager to imitate celebrities.
Customer research has indeed exposed that celebrity endorsement may elevate the recall of advertising messages, increase in the recognition of brand names, and make advertisements more and more believable and influential. A neuro-imaging study supported the hypothesis that celebrity endorsement results in a positive influence on customers. A single disclosure to a specialist celebrity with a product which may result in a permanent positive effect on memory and purchase intent for the product.
The purpose of making decent outfits is primarily for self esteem and fashion for women and men of all ages. Thus, speculation in fashion apparel is largely related to self-evaluative salience, whilst inspirational salience builds provocation and gratification of clothes after shopping period is over.
This topic is a qualitative topic in nature. This issue does have a fair amount of significance. The samples and research for this topic can be done in many ways.
The samples will be taken from Male Fashion brands hence the sample size will be taken from 10 brands owners.
Interviews will be conducted by the following brand owners:
Nike, Levi’s, Stone Age, Hang Ten, Cross Roads, Outfitters, Junaid Jamshed, Lark & Finch, Giordano &Funk Asia.
Questionnaires conducted from those males who are strong followers of a specific brand and from those who follow the latest male fashions. The chunks of people who the questionnaires are taken from are chosen from the areas of defense and Clifton. Most of which are school, college or university going students.
Data collected from different fashion magazines; information published by fashion houses and their journals or magazines. Moreover interviews taken from brand owners and workers to know more about the emerging use of fahion apparel.
The questionaires will be floated among 100 customers ranging from 15-30 year old males. The questionaire will attempt at extracting information of customer preferences; as to what they would like to see in the coming seasons in fashion apparel. Along with this, questions will be asked about the purchase decisions of customers, what actually makes them buy a product and the consumer culture regarding apparel. They will also be asked if price plays apart in their decisions of buying new fashion apparel.
Sampling will be done as a means of random sampling.
The research sample of 100 people was taken and questionnaires were floated among them. After getting their replies the questionnaires were analyzed and their analysis is presented in three forms
The analysis of the questionnaire is as under:
15 – 19
20 – 24
25 – 29
2. Which clothes you prefer and why?
3. Do you buy branded Clothes?
No (Skip to question 5)
4. If yes, then which Brand?
Other, Please Specify:
5. In buying clothes, what you look at?
6. What attracts you to buy the clothes?
7. How often you buy clothes?
Once a month
Twice a month
Three times a month
8. How much you spend annually on clothes?
5000 – 10,000
10,000 – 20,000
9. What would you like to see in the coming season?
10. Which marketing techniques in your opinion are the most effective?
Question 1: Age
29% of our age group was between 15 to 19 year olds (teenagers). 44% were between 20 to 24 year olds and 27% were between the age group of 25 to 30 year olds.
Question 2: Which type of clothes you prefer?
A whopping 83% of our surveyed people prefer to wear western clothes, whereas only 17% of them wear traditional eastern clothes. This shows that the target market is more interested in buying in western attire as compared to our traditional attire.
Question 3: Do you Buy Branded Clothes:
A staggering 77% of the people we surveyed from buy branded clothes and only 23% said no to buying branded clothes. This shows us that people prefer buying branded clothes rather than buying local clothes.
Question 4: Which brand do you buy?
The most popular brand is Junaid Jamshed, the people we surveyed said that they buy J. clothes whenever there is a family function or near Eid. People were allowed to choose more than one brands which was why 53% people chose outfitters. Crossroads and Stone Age had a close call at 49% and 47%. Levis was chosen by 36% and 19% people chose Nike. Lastly Hang Ten was chosen by 6% people and 7% people chose other brands.
Question 5: What you look at, when buying clothes?
73 people out of 112 look at the quality of the clothes while buying them, 66 look at the brand and only 28 look at the price. This tells us that the quality of the clothes matter the most and the price is not such an issue.
Question 6: What attracts you to buy clothes?
When people go to buy clothes the design is what attracts them the most at the end comes the color.
Question 7: How often you buy clothes?
64 people buy clothes twice a month and 31 buy clothes once a month, there were still 14 people who said they buy clothes three times a month, and 3 shopaholics buy clothes every week.
Question 8: How much you spend annually on clothes?
56% people spent above 20,000 on clothes every year whereas 4% people spent even less than 5000 on clothes each year.
Question 9: What would you like to see in the coming season?
The answers to this question were a variety of different taste and likes. The most popular being the western attire has become boring and old for the young generation but alas it’s easy to wear and comfort ability overrides that taste of fashion.
The male want to see in the upcoming season to something they can easily wear to school/colleges or universities. The time of kurta on top of jeans is long past. No new innovation in eastern fashion to quench the thirst of these males, have made them adapt to the western culture.
Some of the views are shown:
- Accessible and Comfortable clothes
- New looks and designs
- New variations with style and comfort
- Affordable fashion wear
- A mix of traditional with western that’s easy to wear
Question 10: Which advertising medium you look at?
Majority of people watch advertisements on the television. Nearly all the male that were surveyed do, that is only 6% of them do not watch television ads. The least popular medium for advertisement is the radio that is only 13% males listen to it. So this results shows that the best way to market a product is through television advertisements.
There is only one official nike store in Pakistan, and that is in Islamabad. The Nike brand is very well known throughout the world for its variety of products. Its quality is one of the best available. However due to the inaccessibility of these products, the Nike products sale in Pakistan is very limited.
Levi’s is easily available around Pakistan. Their designs are creative and great in quality, as well as being environmentally friendly. They have eleven official outlets in Pakistan as well as countless Levi’s factory outlets.
“Levi’s Fall 2011 men’s collection is about exceptional craftsmanship, attention to detail and innovation in fits, finishes and fabrics. The collection is the embodiment of refined American style.” – The view of Levi’s brand owner on their fall 2011 men collection.
“Whether inspired by punk rock, go-getting glam, funk or urban street culture, Stoneage aims to empower the young with a fashion statement to emancipate and liberate. Dressing up the cool and toning down the convention, Stoneage enhances a trend culture honed in on what the rebels of today crave: street smart threads on a whole new scale of attitude re-born.” – The mission statement of Stoneage.
As a premier authority on denim-wear in Pakistan, Stoneage has become an indisputable ringleader on how trends and fashion are done in the blue. With over four already operating outlets in Pakistan, two under construction and three more ready to set trends ablaze by the upcoming season. Stoneage is ready to jump in the gap and take over the male consumers of Pakistan with its products.
- Cross Roads
CrossRoads came in existence in the winters of 2002.Since then it alone has been filling the huge vacuum in Pakistani ready to wear street wear clothing. It was known for its wide range of sweaters initially but now it’s a brand providing a whole range of casual western clothing for both men and women, keeping its steps in alignment with the fast, ever evolving international trends. Currently in 13 cities of Pakistan with 40 outlets, it’s growing and has yet more to go.
This Brand is quite new to Pakistan but the speed at which it expanded in the whole country is unbelievable. However the brand is not as well known as Levi’s or Nike. So it should work on its marketing to publicize its many amazing and creative designs, to let their consumers know that they are here to dominate male consumer attire.
Established in 2003, and having its headquarters located in Lahore over an area of 70,000 square feet, Times Clothing introduced the fast fashion business concept to Pakistan. Outfitters is a western attire shop, mostly jeans and shirt. It has rapidly increased its business in Pakistan and is still growing. It has very interesting designs that “Inspire creativity, passion, optimism and fun.”
“To continue to thrive as a business, as a leader, as a trend-setter over the next ten years and beyond, we must look ahead, understand the trends and forces that will shape our business in the future and move swiftly to prepare for what’s to come. Getting ready for TOMORROW TODAY is the key. That’s our mission, our vision. It creates a long-term destination for our business and provides us with a “Roadmap” for winning together with our customers, employees and partners.” – Mission of Outfitters
- Junaid Jamshed
The very well known traditional clothing shop. A Pakistani brand with its headquarters in Karachi, Pakistan. Dying crafts from centuries past like gota and block print are being revived at Junaid Jamshed. to present a glorious local heritage to the world in an aesthetic package. Quality is never compromised upon at Junaid Jamshed. Whether in a fabric, its cut or its stitching.
Nearly all male consumer buy their clothes from here, however they are not everyday attire. Junaid Jamshed is a store recognized for formal attire. So for Junaid Jamshed to prevail over all other brands it needs to find out how to convert their unique styles and designs to everyday attire which is comfortable and easy to wear.
In my conclusion I would say that in Pakistan male fashion is a new concept and people are not very well aware of it, only women fashion is highlighted everywhere. There is a gap between the manufacturers and the customers. Not all the masses are aware that there is a variety of fashion attire available to them. There is a non-existent male consumer culture if compared to the blooming female consumer culture.
Even if the product is well worth the price, the awareness is so low that is slows the selling of these male fashion attires.
The various manufacturers should advertise on the television as the majority of their target market watches advertisements on them. Their second choice of advertisements should be billboards.
I conclude those males are willing to go buy fashion apparel but there is no guidance to them on what or where to buy from, they leave the shopping matters to their female counterpart (either mother or wife). The male consumer is hardly seen shopping like the female consumer does. There is a very long way to go to achieve the hype and glamour of female purchase intentions.