Respond to this discussion post. Do not argue. Just add points to either agree or disagree to the already made points. Do not repeat what is already said. 1 page is good. Learning materials and instructions for the discussion is below the discussion.    
  Biological (Genetic & Neuroscientific) Factors that Influence the Development of Psychopathology   Biological factors greatly influence the development of psychopathology. One main biological factor is the role of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are used in chemical intraneuronal communication. Neurotransmitters influence thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Another biological factor is the role of genetics. Genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia, alcoholism, anxiety disorder, and attention deficit disorder (Nicol & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, 2010). For example, patients who have first-degree relatives that have schizophrenia are three times more likely to develop schizophrenia. Another example of how biological factors influences psychopathology is neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism. There is clear evidence that the biology of the brain has alterations in specific cellular and molecular neurodevelopmental pathway that cause this disorder (Sadock et al., 2015).  Psychological, Social, Cultural & Interpersonal Factors that Influence the Development of Psychopathology   According to Dr. Kalin, (2020), during early life development, environmental influences affect rapid brain development that can change behavioral, emotional, and cognitive abilities. For example, when individuals are exposed to adversity and trauma, they are at greater risk of developing a form of psychopathology (Kalin, 2020). Social, cultural, and interpersonal factors can influence the development of psychopathology. Studies have shown that certain psychopathology surrounds a certain gender, sexual orientation, and migration process because there is an increase in vulnerability and are often exposed to higher psychological distress (Moleiro, 2018). For example, when individuals face socio-economic adversities such as poverty, they have low life satisfaction leading to the onset of psychopathology. Another social or interpersonal influence that aids in the development of psychopathology is negative peer interactions. Bullying and harassment from peers increase an individual’s risk of drug use, behavioral and mental health problems.  Conclusion   In conclusion, the development of psychopathology is a product of complex neurobiological processes that are influenced by a wide variety of biological factors, physical and social environmental factors, and psychological factors. From brain development to sleep and nutrition, all factors of an individual’s life can change the way an individual thinks, feels, and behaves. As a nurse practitioner, it’s important to understand how all these factors shape an individual’s development so that treatment can be individually tailored.       References  Kalin, N. H. (2020). Early-life environmental factors impacting the development of  psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 1–3.  Moleiro, C. (2018). Culture and psychopathology: new perspectives on research, practice, and  clinical training in a globalized world. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9.  Nicol, S. E., & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. (2010). Genetic factors in psychopathology. Handbook  of Prevention, 21–41.  Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th  ed.). Wolters Kluwer
  Week 1:   History and Theories of Psychopathology  The history of the diagnosis of mental disorders is fraught with examples of how cultural norms and prejudices interfere with and warp a diagnosis. The result is that normal behavior and orientations have been pathologized as an illness or disease. An example of this would be the story of Alan Turing, the famous British computer scientist of the 20th century, who was instrumental in inventing modern computers and deciphering German code in World War II. He was convicted in 1952 in England of gross indecency for being gay. Turing was forced by the courts to undergo 12 months of hormone therapy and could no longer work for the British government. At the time, homosexuality was pathologized as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and was criminalized in most Western countries. It was not until 1973 that the American Psychiatric Association (APA) finally removed homosexuality from the DSM.  Historically, the process of rendering a diagnosis has been used to pathologize those who fell outside what was considered the cultural norm of human behavior. This process often marginalized diagnosed populations and prevented individuals from receiving appropriate care. It is of utmost importance to consider cultural issues that influence how you as a clinician interpret a client’s behavior and how cultural issues influence how a client may express behavior. This week, you explore the history of psychopathology and the evolution of theoretical perspectives in the field.     Learning Objective  Students will:   Analyze historical and currently recognized biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that inform the expression, course, and prevalence of psychopathology               Discussion: Factors That Influence the Development of Psychopathology  In many realms of medicine, objective diagnoses can be made: A clavicula is broken.  An infection is present. TSH levels meet the diagnostic criteria for hypothyroidism. Psychiatry, on      the other hand, deals with psychological phenomena and behaviors. Can these, too, be “defined objectively and by scientific criteria (Gergen, 1985), or are they social constructions?” (Sadock et al., 2015).      Thanks to myriad advances during recent decades, we know that psychopathology is caused by many interacting factors. Theoretical and clinical contributions to the field have come from the neural sciences, genetics, psychology, and social-cultural sciences. How do these factors impact the expression, classification, diagnosis, and prevalence of psychopathology, and why might it be important for a nurse practitioner to take a multidimensional, integrative approach?  To Prepare:  Review this week’s Learning Resources, considering the many interacting factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology.  Consider how theoretical perspective on psychopathology impacts the work of the PMHNP.   By Day 3 of Week 1  Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.   Reading:      Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry (11th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.    Chapter 1, Neural Sciences     Chapter 2, Contributions of the Psychosocial Sciences    Chapter 3, Contributions of the Sociocultural Sciences    Chapter 4, Theories of Personality and Psychopathology    Chapter 31.17c, Child Psychiatry: Other Conditions: Identity Problem      Butcher, J. N., & Kendall, P. C. (2018). Introduction to childhood and adolescent psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 3–14). American Psychological Association.    Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology:    Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association.    Jackson, C. E., & Milberg, W. P. (2018). Examination of neurological and neuropsychological features in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 65–90). American Psychological Association.    Masten, A. S., & Kalstabakken, A. W. (2018). Developmental perspectives on psychopathology in children and adolescents. In J. N. Butcher & P. C. Kendall (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Child and adolescent psychopathology., Vol. 2. (pp. 15–36). American Psychological Association.  

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