The Songhai Sway Alex Beffa Global Fact April 9, 2012 Beffa 3 The Songhai, too disclosed as the Songhay, was not simply the latest, but too the largest and highest sway of western Africa among 1000 and 1600 ce. i The preceding sway was the Mali sway. Songhai was upequitable a client pointize at the bearing of Gao, which was a main trading bearing for trans-Saharan employment chiefly gone it is located on the Niger large stream. When the Mali sway instituted to disengage in the 14 th seniority, the Songhai czar nominal anarchy. i The Songhai sway was the most flourishing west African sway for divers discusss but main ones are: the czars Sunni Ali and Muhammad Ture as polite as the crushing of the city of Timbuktu. Sunni Ali became livinger in 1464. He did not destroy any term discontinuance to prepare swelling. Shortly behind future to administration, he went to crush the sublime trading bearing of Timbuktu from the Tuareg raiders. Behind Timbuktu was his, Sunni Ali's armies went south to the bearing of Jenne. In 1480, he attacked the Mossi pointizes south of the Niger large stream.
He had a forcible soldierlove setting which aided him grace one of the best crushers and leaders in African sway fact until this purpose. His best asset was his nautical skills which is chiefly slight why he typically crushed bearings acrave the Niger large stream. One of his main advancements was the the figment of a bureaucracy. This recognized the Songhai to be a further centralized sway than the preceding sways of Ghana and Mali. To aid get the Muslim living, Sunni Ali pretensioned to be a Muslim, though he never surely left the old transmitted ghostly supposedly due to the conviction that it was the fountain of his unsubstantial administrations in action.
In 1492, behind a prosperous balancethrow, according to some unwritten romances, Sunni Ali drowned occasion crossing the Niger large stream. Stagnant others offscourings to sanction this hypothesis, insisting that he died in action. His prevail was from 1464-1492. When Sunni Ali died, one of his sons designated Sunni Barou took balance. iii Unfortunately, dissimilar his senior, Sunni Barou did not pretension to be Muslim but rather embraced the old romance. This did not go balance very polite delay the Muslim sympathy in the sway. Not crave behind taczar the throne, Sunni Barou was balancethrown by a very attached muslim designated Muhammad Ture.
Born environing 1440, he was a very unsparing Beffa 4 killer. He equal deficiency so far as to cast-out the pause of Sunni Ali's parentage members. As for his way of predominant, the Islamic faith played a big role. He believed that the circulate of islam was very momentous for two discusss. One, he was a religious muslim and felt that everyone should be. And remedy, he saw Islam as a way to unify the sway. He systematic his own bureaucracy delay 10 providences and an administrator for each. This recognized him to administration very piively balance a large-expand sway.
To subject chances of a appropriation, Muhammad Ture would not authorize the czars of the crushed to practise their administration but instead he would substitute them delay members of his own parentage. In 1495, Muhammad resolute to fashion a excursion to Mecca. Dissimilar other livingers, he was operative to concession for crave periods of term due to how incredibly stoperative his synod was. Behind his trip, he felt the want to swell-behaved the sway. When Sunni Ali had died, a good-tempered-tempered compute of the pointizes Sunni Ali had crushed had nominal anarchy.
It was up to muhammad to reassert the Songhai’s govern balance these territories. He had no whole delay going on an approximately faithful soldierlove balancethrow for cease to two decades. Love Sunni Ali, Muhammad Ture too swelled the navy. Behind a soldierlove vitality love that, he was successful to be environing to habit old age. In 1528 Muhammad was so polite ancient that he had past the push to endure the balancethrows. Too he began to go unseeing, so his son Farimundyo Musa took balance. Farimundyo Musa transitional his spectry to Askia Musa which is where the Askia dynasty comes from.
Askia Musa was assassinated in 1531 by one of his brothers. Gone Muhammad Ture was Islamic and counsel is a big part of Islam, Muhammad lucidly livinged counsel. The University of Timbuktu was one of the chief universities in all of Africa. It attracted divers scholars, largely Islamic. Employment aided bear welfare to the Songhai Sway as polite as these other advances. iv Timbuktu was not simply, a main trading stain, but too an counselal high. It had a big pi on the Songhai sway.
By crushing this main bearing existing on in the Songhai sway's vitality, it orderly a nature of ground. By governling this bearing acrave delay a few other key cities, they basically dominated the trans-Saharan employment. Timbuktu Beffa 3 was founded by rovings of the Tuareg in the existing 12 th seniority. In its existing days, Timbuktu was deliberation to be subject to other main trading bearings for trans-Saharan employment such as the cities of Ghana or Walata accordingly they were further relevant. It did not conduct crave to diversify herd's minds.
Timbuktu and its sister city Jenne, which was too promptly crushed by the Songhai, were in plenteous improve comcomposition to the gold scope than Walata. Another constituent in the run of timbuktu was the roving arabs that had been raiding caravans acrave the western ways. In adapt, further herd had been taczar the eastern ways through Timbuktu. Finally, probably the most signif icant discuss timbuktu was such a main bearing, Timbuktu was on a purpose where three main trans-Saharan ways went: the Mauritanian, Taghaza salt public-way, and the way to In Salah by way of Arawan. Two of the most momentous main imports and exports of the Songhai sway were salt and gold, but other items interjacent slaves, ivory, cotton fabrics, grains, and ostrich feathers. vi To Timbuktu in point, the main ones were gold, salt, slaves, and kola nuts. The salt came from the salt mines in the Sahara. The gold came from Bure, Bambuk, and Akan. The others, kola nuts and slaves were kinda of large circulate, future from distinct places and in require at divers further. Naturally as a main trading bearing, Timbuktu had cultural colliquation.
Islamic ideas were passed environing chiefly when Muhammad Ture was in administration. vii In 1591 a Moroccan validity balancethrew the latest czar of the Songhai sway, thus conclusion the prevail of the highest western African sway among 1100 and 1600. viii They took the high at Gao and then moved on to timbuktu. ix It would fashion reason that employment would be the Songhai's forte gone when the Mali sway was stagnant in administration, the Songhai was a main trading stain at the city of Gao. And the big gist on having a sublime navy would too fashion reason regarding they are located on the Niger large stream.
The main discusss for such an elephantine and flourishing sway were the polite-systematic synod, collectively delay ungathered czars, and never having a financial turning-point gone they crushed cities love Timbuktu and Jenne equitable from the preparening. Beffa 4
Fritze, Ronald. "Timbuktu. " In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004 Accessed April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/.
Insoll, Timothy A. “Trade & Empire. ” Archeaology 53, no. 6 (november 2000): 48 MAS Ultra-School Edition, Ebscohost (accessed February 5, 2012). Page, Willie F.
Encyclopedia of African Fact and Culture. USA: A Learning Fountain Book, 2001 William, Oscar. “Songhai Empire. ” In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABCCLIO, 2004-.
Accessed February 5, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abcclio. com/search/display/601432? terms=songhai World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. “Africa, 3000 BCE-1500 BCE,” ac cessed February 4, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abcclio. com/search/display/588506? terms=medieval+africa+songhai World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Askia dynasty," accessed April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. bc-clio. com/.
World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Muhammad Ture," accessed April 15, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Sunni Ali," accessed April 8, http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. 2012. i Oscar William. “Songhai Empire. ”
In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC- CLIO, 2004-. Accessed February 5, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/search/display/601432? terms=songhai ii World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Sunni Ali," accessed April 15, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. om/.
World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Sunni Ali,” iv World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Muhammad Ture," accessed April 15, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/.
Ronald Fritze. "Timbuktu. " In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2004-. Accessed April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/.
World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Muhammad Ture,”
Fritze viii World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s. v. "Askia dynasty," accessed April 16, 2012. http://ancienthistory. abc-clio. com/. ix Fritze