Multilingualism: Controlled Vocabulary and Survey

MULTILINGUAL ACCESS TO THE DIGITAL EUROPEAN CULTURAL HERITAGE Introduction to the multilingual difference of Europe Best habits for multilingual websites and thesauri Divergency Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 4 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 6 1. 1 FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................ 1. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................... 10 1. 3 INTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE SURVEY .............................................................................. 10 1. 4 DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................... 12 2. Dominion ments ......................................................................................................................... 15 2. CZECH REPUBLIC ............................................................................................................. 15 2. 1. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 15 2. 1. 2 The inspect in the Czech Republic....................................................................... 15 2. 1. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 17 2. 2 ESTONIA ........................................................................................................................... 8 2. 2. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 18 2. 2. 2 The inspect in Estonia.......................................................................................... 18 2. 2. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 20 2. 3 FRANCE ............................................................................................................................ 21 2. 3. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 1 2. 3. 2 The inspect in France ........................................................................................... 27 2. 3. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 29 2. 4 GERMANY ........................................................................................................................ 35 2. 4. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 35 2. 4. 2 The Inspect in Germultifarious ...................................................................................... 5 2. 4. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 36 2. 5 GREECE ............................................................................................................................ 39 2. 5. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 39 2. 5. 2 The Inspect in Greece.......................................................................................... 39 2. 5. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 40 2. HUNGARY ........................................................................................................................ 42 2. 6. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 42 2. 6. 2 The Inspect in Hungary ....................................................................................... 42 2. 6. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 43 2. 7 IRELAND........................................................................................................................... 4 2. 7. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 44 2. 7. 2 The Inspect in Ireland.......................................................................................... 44 2. 7. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 44 2. 8 ISRAEL ............................................................................................................................. 45 2. 8. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 45 2. 8. The Inspect in Israel ............................................................................................ 45 2. 8. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 48 2. 9 ITALY ............................................................................................................................... 49 2. 9. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 49 2. 9. 2 The inspect in Italy............................................................................................... 9 2. 9. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 50 2. 10 LATVIA ............................................................................................................................ 52 2. 10. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 52 2. 10. 2 The Inspect in Latvia ........................................................................................... 53 2. 10. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 53 2. 1 MALTA ............................................................................................................................. 55 2. 11. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 55 2 2. 11. 2 The Inspect in Malta............................................................................................ 55 2. 11. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 56 2. 12 THE NETHERLANDS .......................................................................................................... 6 2. 12. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 56 2. 12. 2 The inspect in the Netherlands............................................................................. 57 2. 12. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 58 2. 13. NORWAY .......................................................................................................................... 60 2. 13. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 60 2. 3. 2 The Inspect in Norway ........................................................................................ 62 2. 14 POLAND ........................................................................................................................... 63 2. 14. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 63 2. 14. 2 The Inspect in Poland .......................................................................................... 63 2. 14. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 4 2. 14. 4 Summary and misentry .................................................................................... 65 2. 15 RUSSIAN FEDERATION ..................................................................................................... 66 2. 15. 1 Population and Languages traditional ....................................................................... 66 2. 15. 2 The inspect in Russian Federation ....................................................................... 66 2. 15. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 67 2. 6 SLOVAK REPUBLIC ........................................................................................................... 69 2. 16. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 69 2. 16. 2 The inspect in Slovak Reunreserved ........................................................................... 69 2. 16. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used ......................................................... 71 2. 17 SLOVENIA ........................................................................................................................ 2 2. 17. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 72 2. 17. 2 The inspect in Slovenia........................................................................................ 72 2. 17. 3 Inferior lexicon and thesauri used ............................................................ 72 2. 18 SPAIN ............................................................................................................................... 73 2. 18. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 3 2. 18. 2 The inspect in Spain............................................................................................. 73 2. 19 UNITED KINGDOM ............................................................................................................ 75 2. 19. 1 Population and Languages traditional ...................................................................... 75 2. 19. 2 The Inspect in United Kingdom .......................................................................... 76 2. 19. 3 Inferior vocabularies and thesauri .................................................................. 8 3. Good-natured habit examples ........................................................................................................... 80 3. 1 BEST PRACTICES FOR MULTILINGUAL THESAURI .............................................................. 80 3. 2 BEST PRACTICE EXAMPLES FOR MULTILINGUAL WEBSITES ............................................... 86 3. 2. 1 Best habit examples of multilingual websites delay thesaurus ........................ 86 3. 2. 2 Best habits of multilingual websites delay loose passage indexing ............................ 89 4. Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 94 5. Coming perspectives ................................................................................................................... 96 Annex 1: Questionnaire .................................................................................................................. 97 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................................ 03 Annex 2: Interniggardly thesauri and inferior vocabularies........................................................... 104 Annex 3: Other leaderships ................................................................................................................ 105 Annex 4: Registered thesauri on the inspect’s webplight ................................................................. 107 3 Acknowledgements From February 2004 10 new portion avers (plus Russia and Israel) bear been alloticipating in the junction European leadership of MINERVA Plus confirmed delay MINERVA to coordinate digitization efforts and activities. Since then Minerva Plus supplementary confirmed bunchs (SWG) confirmed production and Hungary became the coordinator of SWG Multilingual thesauri. The posterity of multilingualism is graceful late and late suggestive in making the digital cultural inheritance of Europe beneficial. Speech is one of the most suggestive allotments to arrival of websites and, consequently of this allotment, huge magnitude of the European digital cultural inheritance cannot be institute on the Internet. MINERVA Plus conducted a elder inspect to get an redressestimate of the residence relating speech custom in cultural websites. The aim of the inspect was to see to what grade cultural websites and entrances are beneficial for users of divergent speech communities and too whether websites use late speechs than the speech they were originally imagined in. Furtherlate the inspect prepared to encounter out if cultural websites are using re-establishment tools such as inferior vocabularies or thesauri and whether multilingual tools are beneficial for use. The arrangementology used for our inspect intervening a questionnaire completed on a optional plea by our target bunch: libraries, museums, annals and other cultural companys loose websites. The preference of the websites was not or-lawsally instituteed and so the sampling is not statistically capacityical. Nevertheless, the inspect yielded a unconcealed delineate of multilingualism of cultural websites and the encounterings obtain be a amiable-natured-natured starting object for late disconnected and statistically weighty examination in the coming. I would approve to endow our Israeli colleagues for letting us use their questionnaire (Registry of Inferior Vocabularies allied to Jewish Cultural Inheritance and Israel) as plea for our inspect. I am too very delectpowerful to our respondents for collateing and mailing the requested perceiveledge. Last but not lowest I would approve to favoring my thankfulness to the editorial consultation of this instrument. Ivan Ronai NRG portion for Hungary "We assign this ment to the retrospect of the modern Stephen Conrad. ” Editorial Committee Stephan Conrad (Germany) David Dawson (The United Kingdom), Christophe Dessaux (France), Kate Fernie (The United Kingdom), Antonella Fresa (Italy), Dr. Allison Kupietzky (Israel), Ivan Ronai (Hungary), Martina Rozman Salobir (Slovenia), Gabriella Szaloki (Hungary) 4 Contributors Jitka Zamrzlova (Czeck Republik) Marju Reismaa (Estonia) Veronique Prouvost (France) Dimitrios A. Koutsomitropoulos (Greece) Stephan Conrad (Germany) Szaloki Gabriella (HUngary) Marzia Piccininno (Italy) Guiliana di Frnacesco (Italy) Dr. Allison Kupietzky (Israel) Domitilla Fagan (Ireland) Laila Valdovska (Latvia) Pierre Sammut (Malta) Jos Taekema (The Netherlands) Lars Egeland (Norway) Maria Sliwinska (Poland) Piotr Ryszewski (Poland) Ana Alvarez Lacambra (Spain) Martina Roznan Salobir (Slovenia) Elena Kuzmina (The Russian Federation) Martin Katuscak (Slovak Republik) Kate Fernie (The United Kingdom) Guy Frank (Luxembourg) Minna Kaukonen (Finland) 1. 1. 1 Introduction FOREWORD “Immer werden jene vonnoten sein, die auf das Bindende zwischen den Volkern jenseits des Trennenden hindeuten und im Herzen der Menschheit den Gedanken eines kommenden Zeitalters hoherer Humanitat glaubig erneuern“ Stefan Zweig: Triumph und Tragik des Erasmus von Rotterdam There obtain arrangementaticly be compulsory those who berepose on the astringent magnitude unformed personss redress the separating ones, reinvigorating, in the core of men, the sentiment of a aftercited date of excellent skinness. What is multilingualism? The European conpassage "Multilingualism adverts to twain a single’s force to use irnot-absolute speechs and the co-existence of divergent speech communities in one geographical area. "1 In authenticity, the late speechs you perceive, the late of a single you are (Kolko jazykov vies, tolkokrat si clovekom), says the Slovak maxim that unreserveds the Commission’s despatch on multilingualism. The European Commission adopted in November 2005 the despatch to the Council “New Frameoperation Plan for Multilingualism” instrument2, which subordinatelines the weight of multilingualism and introduces the European Commission's multilingualism prudence. The Commission’s multilingualism prudence has three grant: • to tolerate speech attainment and promoting linguistic difference in indivisibility; • to excite a healthful multilingual husbanding, and • to produce citizens arrival to European Union comp, procedures and perceiveledge in their own speechs. "3 1 2 3 Despatch from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Gregarious Committee and the Committee of the Regions - A New Frameoperation Plan for Multilingualism COM(2005) 596 conclusive Brussels, 22. 11. 2005 http://europa. eu. int/languages/servlets/Doc? d=913 European Commission comcompress indemnify http://europa. eu. int/rapid/pressReleasesAction. do? advertence=IP/05/1451&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN &guiLanguage=en#fn1 http://europa. eu. int/languages/servlets/Doc? id=913 6 The Tower of Babel is an oldfashioned capacity of the multilingualism in the Bible4 Forever gone the European Year of Languages in 20015 was organised by the European Council, the European Day of Languages has been held complete September 26 to acceleration the unreserved recognize the weight of speech attainment, to construct cognizantness of all the speechs traditional in Europe and to tolerate personalitylong speech attainment. It is a commemoration of Europe’s linguistic difference. The European Commission has too confirmed modernly a new entrance for European speechs6, which is beneficial in all the 20 authoritative speechs of the European Union. It is a suited perceiveledge commencement of multilingualism and can be a starting object for complete scheme. The recommencement producen has been dexterous for the unconcealed unreserved and covers a file from the Union’s policies to tolerate speech attainment and linguistic difference. The deep areas balmy are: • linguistic difference • speech attainment • speech training • translation • solution • speech technology A enlightened file of perceiveledge is producen for each of them from EU and niggardly rules to a circular up of reposeing opportunities for administrative linguists delay the Union’s companys. In authenticity, the Despatch too stresses the weight of speech skills to operationer disturbance and the 4 5 6 Pieter Breugel: Tower of Babel http://europa. eu. int/comm/education/policies/lang/awareness/year2001_en. html http://europa. eu. int/languages/ 7 ompetitiveness of the EU husbanding. The Commission obtain announce a consider next year on the impression on the European husbanding of limitedages of speechs skills. It is merit mentioning the Eurobarometer7 inspect announceed on the web plight that was carried out unformed May and June 2005 unformed European citizens including those of the arrivalion countries (Bulgaria and Romania), of solicitor countries (Croatia and Turkey) and the Turkish Cypriot Community. One of the most sensational products is that half of the persons interviewed say that they can repose a dialogue in a assist speech divergently from their dowager speech. Tower of Babel in the Maciejowski Bible8 Why Multilingualism is suggestive? In Europe we lack to subsist in a gregariously generic indivisibility in which diverse humanizations subsist in contemptible intellect, comlie at the selfselfsimilar season a contemptible European convertibility. Language, contemporaneously delay the divided perceiveledge and traditions, which passed from one era to another, is an suggestive allot of an single’s cultural convertibility. We strongly consider that the difference of speechs, traditions and unromantic experiences enriches us all and fosters our contemptible unplain for creativity. Let us imagine speechs concatenate persons and humanizations not deal-out them. This is an suggestive role for cultural companys. Use the condition of museums; multilingualism is of suggestive weight. Museums elucidate their ball of drudgerys as collateing, making beneficial, conserving, examinationing and exhibiting objects. A multilingual change of perceiveledge on objects subsistences museums in their drudgerys on the one index and on the other index the users of the products of museum operation (visitors). Museums collate objects whose aim renders them sole and one-of-a-kind. However, the substantial objects can barely be beneficial in one assign at one aim season, making them arrivalible barely to a few persons. In manage to imagine perceiveledge encircling museum pieces beneficial to as enlightened a target bunch as feasible, a misdedicate weight lies in the arrivalibility of the pertinent perceiveledge on the Internet and in superior speech allotments. Web plights are noticeablely potent moderation to do that. Nonetheless, multilingual change of perceiveledge encircling museum pieces is too of concern for cultural tourism and for-this-infer for economic infers. A museum stranger lacks to perceive how to arrival such objects, in other say, which museum is evinceing the objects at what object in season. Museums insufficiency to be commandful to imagine this perceiveledge beneficial in divergent speechs in manage to penetrate strangers from neighbouring countries. 7 8 Europeans and speechs. A inspect in 25 EU Portion States, in the arrivalion countries (Bulgaria and Romania), the solicitor countries (Croatia and Turkey) and unformed the Turkish Cypriot Indivisibility http://europa. eu. int/languages/en/document/80/20 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Image:Maciejowski_Tower_of_Babel. jpg 8 Multilingualism is of misdedicate concern to fineer and questional museums in Europe, to rescue questional and niggardly differences and to imagine beneficial their peculiarities and sole characteristics to others. Objects that originally belonged contemporaneously bear been distribute acircular the cosmos-commindivisibility by moderations of change, forfeiture, resistance of amiable-natureds and too by pilfering or outrageous engagement. To relent skinredhips unformed the magnitude of collateions that bear been scattered-aextensive to multiple companys and countries, it is imported to change pertinent perceiveledge and for this to betide multilingual arrivalibility is a prerequisite. Further, it can be conjectured that multifarious objects can be fitted through a provenance reunderstanding that crosses borders. The single objects contemptiblely citationureualise one another. And cross-bmanage despatch implies the use of multiple speechs. Another object of estimate is the description and succorfulness of despatch on the Internet. Understanding technologies dramatically transitional users’ behaviour at the end of twentieth date and a steady extension in demands and expectations from new advantages can be observed. Some countries ment that the enumerate of essential marks to cultural companys is graceful better than authentic marks. Therefore each company should use foresight encircling despatch on the Internet and the best moderation for this is an companyal website. Cultural companys bear befit cognizant of the command of websites and bear been creating their own websites gone the 1990s. Redress the example of pledgeing a arrangementatic deeptenance of the perceiveledge granted, multilingualism embodys intermittently a strategic role, The elderity of websites are discourseed to their own fine communities, such as university portions, unreserved library readers or the citizens of a town in which a museum is located. However, the late suited perceiveledge that can be institute on a website, the late Internet users mark them despising of borders. Speech is the elder allotment to outlandishers in making use of these websites. Whilst policies and leaderships aimed at conserving speechs are the excellent once of Portion States, indivisibility action can embody a catalytic role at European smooth adding esteem to the Portion States' efforts. The fruit of multilingualism on the Internet has been stimulated in modern years by the European Commission by subsistenceed trans-niggardly schemes, retaining company unformed digital full owners and speech industries. However, subsistence for lofty description multilingual expedientss stagnant insufficiencys to be enhanced. A panEuropean register and library of confirmed linguistic tools, expedientss and applications as polite as fitted centres of sufficiency and superiority would produce accelerationful subsistence. Online arrival to this register, oriented towards example-solving, providing cultural companys delay misdedicate solutions for favoring examples allied to linguistic and cultural customization would be salutary for the amendment of multilingualism in the web cultural applications. This Handbook is prepared as a subsidy to this pan-European register. Europe's experiences in multiculturalism and multilingualism dramatize an huge ability that European cultural companys should be commandful to instrument by lieing themselves in the new digital ball of perceiveledge and perceiveledge indivisibility. 9 1. 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This instrument was imagined for cultural companys to emphasize the weight of multilingualism, and to produce them perceiveledge and tools for confirming multilingual arrival to their collateions. In the Introduction we incorporate the undivided inspect route carried out by the WP3 confirmed bunch in the room of the MINERVA Plus Project. The aim of the inspect was mapping the multilingualism of the cultural plights and collateing perceiveledge on multilingual thesauri in use. The inspect latested for a year from June 2004 to June 2005 in two runs, the products are exhibited in the subjoined singleitys. During the inspect route we authenticized that we insufficiency to imbibe encircling authoritative and lad speechs and comp delayin divergent countries and so we confirmed to collate Dominion ments. This perceiveledge should be the starting object in each European Union scheme consequently it accelerations to interpret the differences unformed countries. Each ment has the selfselfsimilar composition: multilingual difference of the dominion, an evaluation of the at-liberty-trade in the inspect and use of multilingual thesauri or inferior vocabularies. One of the skilled grant of the MINERVA Scheme is to divide the Best habit examples. Dominion capacityicals were asked to appoint the best habit examples for multilingual websites and thesauri. We bear incorporated the products of the nominations for Best habit examples for multilingual thesauri and introduced some of them in component, which are already in use in multifarious divergent countries. In the inspect we collateed 657 multilingual websites9 from all redress Europe. We exhibit the Best habit examples of multilingual cultural websites, which are beneficial in two or late speechs, and encounter the requirements of the 7th singleity of the Description Principles for cultural Web Sites: a indexbook10 announceed by the MINERVA Plus WP5 confirmed bunch. Some of them utensils thesaurus for perceiveledge re-establishment. From the products, and encounterings we set up the Conclusions encircling the weight of multilingualism, and the use of multilingual thesauri. We too made selfselfsimilar tender for the coming in the Coming perspectives encircling subsistenceed the translation of the polite-tested thesauri, the description trial beds for thesauri, and the elevate collateion of multilingual thesauri. 1. 3 INTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE SURVEY After arrivalion to the European Union the new portion avers became a allot of a multicultural and multilingual indivisibility. At exhibit there are 20 authoritative, and encircling 150 estimated lad and immigrant speechs are traditional in the copious European Union11. Thus perceiveledge re-establishment whether on the Web or in a contemptible axiomsbase can be a solemn example. That is why, at the rebel off encountering of the MINERVA Plus Scheme in Budapest February 2004, it was determined to confirm a confirmed bunch misapplyizing in multilingual posteritys, especially on multilingual thesauri. The confirmed 9 10 11 MINERVA Institutions http://www. minervaeurope. org/institutions. htm http://www. minervaeurope. org/publications/qualitycriteria. tm Calimera Guidelines: Cultural Applications: Topical Institutions Mediating Electronic Resources, Multiligualism, 2004. http://www. calimera. org/Lists/Guidelines/Multilingualism. htm 10 bunch was a ensue up of the operation carried out by the confirmed bunch by the MINERVA Scheme Operation Package 3 (WP3), led by France. Instead of creating a disgrace new multilingual thesaurus for the scheme's purposes, we determined to imagine a inspect of multilingual websites and thesauri. This too gave us a amiable-natured-natured frame to discredress the custom of multilingual thesauri all redress Europe. The inspect was alcoincidently optional, and we repel that our products cannot be considered to be statistically pertinent. They can be best advertred to as a unpremeditated sampling. The infer for this is explained by the divergent offering of the portion avers, divergent arrangements of circulating and muster perceiveledge utensiled by the niggardly capacityicals and the divergent gregarious attitudes of each dominion towards the posterity of multilingualism and consequently the divergent smooths of manliness of the digital products in stipulations of multilingual features. The coordinators' attitudes, confirmed grounds and lies made a elder impression on their countries' products. Some countries, including Israel, The Netherlands and Slovakia, had right noble a inspect and were commandful to conduce these products offline. Other countries, including Poland, Greece and Russia, determined to despatch offline products consequently of a limitedage of season or expedientss; these were ascititious to the online products in the selfselfsimilar frameat. The aim of the inspect was mapping multilingual arrival to the European digital cultural full. To utensil the inspect we compiled a webplight http://www. ek. oszk. hu/minerva/survey, which was used for axioms collateion and evinceing the objective products. The online questionnaire could be penetrateed from the front page. The questionnaire had two elder magnitude. The nobleest singleity was for auditing the multilingualism of the cultural websites. The assist allot could be occupied out barely by companys that repeld the use of inferior vocabularies for perceiveledge re-establishment in their axiomsbase. This allot was domiciled on an Israeli questionnaire that was plain for a divergent inspect. The products could be uniformly ensueed online. There were divergent conjoins from the front page to the "Statistics", to the registered "Institutions", and to the "Controlled vocabularies" bunched by the countries. The statistics were congenial by single countries and too for the products of the undivided inspect. The company’s moulds, the enumerate of the speechs beneficial on the plight, the plight availforce in English and the mould of minute tools were awakend. "Institutions" showed the indicates of the registered companys conjoined to their websites, so that the plight could be enlightenedly reviewed. Inferior vocabularies" showed the indicates of the registered thesauri and their registration frame. The nobleest run of the axioms collateion confirmed in June 2004 and ended in August. In the nobleest divorceition there were 236 answers from 21 avers. This lofty arraigns implied too the difference of at-liberty-trade. From 1 to 40 companys answered per aver and registered their websites in our axiomsbase. There were 67 libraries, 63 museums, 35 annals, 21 cultural plights, and 45 other companys. The products of the nobleest run demonstrated that the 30% of the websites were stagnant monolingual, 3% were bilingual, and encircling 26% were multilingual. There were 31 thesauri registered: 13 from Italy, 10 from the United Kingdom, 6 from Hungary, 1 frame the Netherlands, and 1 from Austria. The confirmed bunch had its nobleest encountering on 12th of November 2004 in Budapest. The portions of the confirmed bunch exhibited a limited dominion ment. The slides are beneficial on the authoritative webplight of the inspect by clicking on the "Download the slide shows". It was evident, that there are divergent comp and offering in each portion avers and so we prepared to collate dominion ments of multilingual aspects. The bunch agreed on new rules for the inspect and restrictions for the products. We confirmed a assist run of the inspect for those countries that were subordinaterepresented in the nobleest run. We too determined to imagine a mailing register (WP3 register) for circulating unconcealed perceiveledge and argument. We set up the criteria for the best habits examples and agreed on determinations. The assist encountering took assign in Berlin on the 8th of April 2005, during the two day WP5 encountering on description of the websites. We gained suited experiences. We authenticised that it would be suited to get 11 o perceive encircling the multilingual posteritys from each dominion in a obstructed way and so we determined to collate dominion ments. This obtain too acceleration us to encounter the best habits examples to divide. We agreed on the frame of the dominion ments and the deadline for preparing them. The assist run of the inspect reserved at the end of May 2005. The entirely products of the two runs of the inspect doubled those of the nobleest. There were 676 websites registered from 24 countries. Some countries, approve Germany, Italy, Greece, Israel and Malta sent observational perceiveledge, but no perceiveledge came from Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania or Luxembourg. There were 265 museums, 138 libraries, 98 annals, 65 cultural plights, and 129 other websites registered. 179 of them were monolingual, the elderity (310) were bilingual, 123 were beneficial in 4 speechs, 14 in 5 speechs, 10 in 6 speechs, 4 in 7 speechs, 3 in 9 speechs, and 1 in 34 speechs. 491 out of the 676 websites were beneficial in English. There were 106 registered inferior vocabularies in our axiomsbase: 1 from Austria, 3 from France, 22 from Germany, 6 from Hungary, 30 from Israel, 13 from Italy, 19 from Russia, 1 from Sweden, 1 from The Netherlands and 10 from the United Kingdom. The third encountering took assign in Budapest on the 8th of September 2005. The alloticipants of the encountering confirmed an editorial consultation of this instrument. We agreed on the seasonline, set up the comlie of the deliverpowerful and divided the drudgerys unformed the bunch. 1. 4 DEFINITIONS Determination of stipulations used in the inspect: Cultural Site: is a webplight of a cultural company (libraries, museums, annals) or a webplight providing cultural perceiveledge having a digital collateion (essential galleries, cultural axiomsbases, unromantic plights). Multilingual website: is a webplight providing perceiveledge in two or late speechs We interpret that thesaurus is a misdedicate mould of inferior lexicon, in which the skinred unformed the stipulations are fit. We are beholding for multilingual thesauri focusing on cultural coverage, which can be used for online perceiveledge re-establishment on a cultural website. A inferior lexicon12 is a register of stipulations that bear been lucidly enumerated. This register is inferior by and is beneficial from a inferior lexicon registration pattern. All stipulations in a inferior lexicon should bear an unambiguous, non-redundant determination. This is a contrivance appearance that may not be gentleman in habit. It depends on how rigorous the inferior lexicon registration pattern is touching registration of stipulations into a inferior lexicon. As a poverty the subjoined two rules should be enforced: • If the selfselfsimilar message is contemptiblely used to moderation divergent concepts in divergent citationures, then its indicate is lucidly fitted to explain this angularity. If multiple stipulations are used to moderation the selfselfsimilar object, one of the stipulations is verified as the preferred message in the inferior lexicon and the other stipulations are registered as synonyms, aliases or non-preferred. A thesaurus is a networked collateion of inferior lexicon stipulations. This moderations that a thesaurus uses associative skinredhips in observation to parent-child skinredhips. The favoringiveness of the associative skinredhips in a thesaurus differ and can be as unaffected as “allied to message” as in message A is allied to message B. 12 What are the differences unformed a lexicon, a taxonomy, a thesaurus, an ontology, and a meta-model? ttp://www. metamodel. com/article. php? story=20030115211223271 12 A thesaurus has two skins of conjoins: extensiveer/narrower message, which is considerable approve the unconcealedization/specialization conjoin, but may subordinatestand a difference of others (right approve a taxonomy). In authenticity, the extensiveer/narrower conjoins of a thesaurus is not authenticly divergent from a taxonomy, as picturesquely overhead. A thesaurus has another skin of conjoin, which typically obtain not be a hierarchical kinsman, although it could be. This conjoin may not bear any patent aim at all, other than that there is some skinredhip unformed the two stipulations. Additional perceiveledge encircling thesauri: What inferior vocabularies, taxonomies, thesauri, ontologies, and meta-models all bear in contemptible are: • They are approaches to acceleration composition, assort, mould, and or dramatize the concepts and skinredhips pertaining to some question question of concern to some indivisibility. • They are prepared to enpowerful a indivisibility to follow to unison and to confide to use the selfselfsimilar stipulations in the selfselfsimilar way. • There is a set of stipulations that some indivisibility agrees to use to advert to these concepts and skinredhips. The aim of the stipulations is fit in some way and to some grade. • They are fuzzy, ill-defined notions used in multifarious divergent ways by divergent singles and communities. Inferior Lexicon vs Loose Text13 When you inquiry an electronic axiomsbase for perceiveledge on a favoring question, you must encounter a redress unformed achieving lofty fitness and achieving lofty resumption. A inquiry which products in lofty fitness obtain be cramped, including barely chronicles which are very focused on your question. However, this mould of inquiry may be so focused that you ignore out on some perceiveledge which may be pertinent. A inquiry which products in lofty resumption obtain be extensiveer and late generic, but may rescue irpertinent perceiveledge which you then bear to quality through. Inferior Lexicon Most electronic axiomsbases authorize you to inquiry a question by inferior lexicon. This is repeatedly the best way to touch that redress unformed fitness and resumption. Inferior lexicon is a set of predetermined stipulations which are used gratefully to portray unmistakable concepts. Experts in a organization awaken an designation and prefer the misdedicate stipulations from the inferior lexicon which best designate what the designation is encircling. All designations which discourse the selfselfsimilar concept obtain be deceitful using the selfselfsimilar message or co-operation of stipulations. . Thesaurus Of route, to use inferior lexicon, you must perceive what the stipulations are. The register of these stipulations is named a thesaurus. Multifarious electronic axiomsbases authorize you to inquiry the thesaurus online to encounter the misdedicate message for your inquiry. Some axiomsbases, including OVID axiomsbases, obtain automatically map, or transmodern the message you mould to the haltst matching inferior lexicon message and perframe the inquiry on that inferior lexicon message. 3 Understanding beneficial by Shauna Rutherford, University of Calgary Library, from: Barclay, Donald (ed). 1995. Training Electronic Understanding Literacy: A How-To-Do-It Manual. New York: Neil Schuman. (p. 63-64). 13 Inferior lexicon stipulations can usually be institute in the question styles or descriptor grounds of a axiomsbase proceedings. When you inquiry by inferior lexicon, the arrangement is beholding for those stipulations barely in the question style or descriptor grounds, not in the other grounds of the axiomsbase. Advantages: Inferior lexicon secures that you rescue all chronicles which discourse the selfselfsimilar question, despising of which say the authors use to portray that question. Synonyms are all deceitful subordinate the selfselfsimilar inferior lexicon message, so the inquiryer is spared the job of thinking of and minute complete message that portrays a unmistakable question. Inferior lexicon too avoids examples delay spelling variations. Disadvantages: There obtain be seasons when using inferior lexicon does not product in the fit inquiry that you insufficiency. New questions are not polite dramatizeed by inferior lexicon. As polite a very favoring and elucidated question may not be dramatizeed in the inferior lexicon which produces a question style which is considerable too extensive. Loose Passage Approximately all electronic axiomsbases authorize loose-passage or keyword minute. In this mould of inquiry, the arrangement usually beholds for your inquiry stipulations in complete gplump of the proceedings (not right in the question style or descriptor grounds) and it beholds for those stipulations to arise fitly as you mould them, delayout mapping or translating them to inferior lexicon stipulations. Advantages Free-passage minute can repeatedly produce late products in a limiteder season p consequently you are not reviewing the thesaurus for the inferior question style. It is misdedicate for very favoring inquiryes or when the question you are beholding for is proportionately new. Disadvantage Free-passage minute repeatedly products in ignoreed chronicles that are very pertinent to your inquiry question. You must waste late season planning your inquiry plan to secure that you are minute all misdedicate synonyms of your inquiry message. Success, for-this-reason, repeatedly depends on your irreverence delay the inquiry question and your force to confirm misdedicate keysay and their synonyms. 14 2. 2. 1 Dominion ments CZECH REPUBLIC 2. 1. 1 Population and Languages traditional The enumerate of nation in the Czech Reunreserved is encircling 10 favorite. 90. 4% of the population is Czech by niggardlyity although multifarious other niggardlyities are dramatizeed (see the tpowerful adown). 94,1% citizens direct Czech, which is the authoritative speech of the Czech Republic. Nationalities in the Czech Reunreserved in 2001 Population in sum 10 230 060 Czech Moravian Slovakian Polish German Ukrainian Vietnamese Hungarian Russian Romany/gypsy Silesian Bulgarian Grecian Serbian Croatian Romanian Albanian Others U/I 9 249 777 380 474 193 190 51 968 39 106 22 112 17 462 14 672 12 369 11 746 10 878 4 363 3 219 1 801 1 585 1 238 690 39 477 172 827 100% 90,4 3,7 1,9 0,5 0,4 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,4 1,7 2. 1. 2 The inspect in the Czech Reunreserved In the nobleest circular of the inspect, 15 cultural companys were chosen; the inspect was completed by considering their web plights via the Internet. This seemed to be the most suitpowerful arrangement of the obtaining weighty products. The cultural companys were bunched into 4 categories: museums, chronicles, galleries and libraries. Museums Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague Niggardly Technical Museum in Prague Technical Museum in Brno Niggardly Museum of Agrihumanization in Prague The Moravian Museum Comenius Museum in Uhersky Brod Museum of Puppets in Chrudim 15 Languages used CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN CZ CZ, EN, DE, FR, NL, IT Husplight Museum in Tabor Museum of Glass and Jewellery in Jablonec nad Nisou The Wallachian Unreserved Air Museum in Roznov Chronicles Memorial Lidice Memorial Terezin Galleries Niggardly Gallery in Prague Moravian Gallery in Brno Libraries Niggardly Library of the Czech Reunreserved CZ, EN, DE CZ CZ, DE, EN CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN In the assist circular of the inspect, a unpremeditated illustration of the websites of portions of the Association of the Museums and Galleries of the Czech Reunreserved (AMG) were checked. The AMG has 856 authoritative portions. In Prague there are 51 companys; 26 museums and 25 other cultural companys (galleries, chronicles etc). The inspect institute that, unformed the Prague museums websites 19. 2% were monolingual, 69. 2 % were bilingual and 11. 6% were multilingual; 80. 8 % were beneficial in English. The inspect institute that, unformed the non-Prague museums websites: 33 % were monolingual, 40% were bilingual websites and 27% were multilingual websites; 67% were beneficial in English. The products from non-Prague museums were as ensues: Museums The City of Tesin Museum The Pharmaceutical Museum Kuks Regional Museum Ceska Lipa City Museum Usti nad Labem Regional Museum of Kromeriz South Moravian Museum in Znojmo The Museum of Moravian Slovakia East Bohemian Museum in Pardubice The Museum of Mlada Boleslav Region The Museum of Romani (Gypsy) Humanization Sports Cars Museum Lany Museum Podkrkonosi in Trutnov Museum of Unromantic Motorcycles and Bohemian Toys Museum Kasperske Hory Regional Unromantic and Geographical Museum in Sumperk The Town Museum Nova Paka Technical Museum in Koprivnice Languages used CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE CZ, EN, DE, PL CZ, EN,DE CZ, EN, DE, FR, PL, RU 16 Portals The Server muzei a galerii CR (Association of the Museums and Galleries of the Czech Republic: http://www. cz-museums. cz/) is the most generic entrance of the Czech museums. An English sayment is floatingly subordinate inferiorstanding. Understanding on museums and cultural inheritance can be institute on the entrance Startpage (http://muzea. startpage. cz/) as polite, but barely in the Czech speech, the selfselfsimilar residence is on the Seznam web schedule (Muzea). Prague museums are picturesquely and registered on the entrance ‚Prague - Core of Europe‘ (http://www. coreofeurope. cz/museum_national1. html), which is used by outlandish strangers to Prague and has an English sayment. There are irnot-absolute library entrances. A register of the most generic can be institute on the home page of the Niggardly Library of the Czech Reunreserved (http://www. nkp. cz/_en/). Uniframe Understanding Gateway (http://www. jib. cz/), Conspectus (http://conspectus. nkp. cz/), Memoria Scheme – Manuscriptorium (http://www. memoria. cz/) and Kramerius (http://kramerius. nkp. cz/) all bear an English sayment. Czech libraries can be institute too on Kknihovny. cz http://www. knihovny. cz/en_index. hp3), which produces perceiveledge on Czech libraries, their collateions, perceiveledge expedientss, advantages and how to arrival and use them. Comparison of encounterings Websites intervening in the MINERVA Survey: 86. 7% beneficial in English. Websites intervening in the inspect of Prague cultural companys: 80. 8 % beneficial in English. Websites of other Czech museums and companys: 67 % beneficial in English. 2. 1. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used No multilingual thesauri delay cultural coverage were institute to be beneficial online unformed the companys intervening in the inspect. Kindred unformed stipulations were mainly executed using conjoins or some other hyperpassage arrangements. Some of the companys used loose passage indexing, but most did not use any fabrication re-establishment tools. The selfselfsimilar residence is gentleman of online inferior vocabularies or eglossaries. Library of Congress Question Headings (LCSH) Library of Congress Question Headings (LCSH) are floatingly used in the Czech Reunreserved as a commencement of English equivalents of question stipulations, a Czech translation does not consist. UNESCO Thesaurus A Czech translation of the UNESCO thesaurus does not departure. 17 2. 2 ESTONIA 2. 2. 1 Population and Languages traditional Estonia has encircling 1. 351 favorite nation (as of January 2005). The enlightenedst ethnic bunchs are Estonians (68%), Russians (26%), Ukrainians (2%), Belarussians (1%) and Finns (1%). Estonian is the barely authoritative speech in Estonia in questional synod and aver companys. The Estonian speech belongs to the Finno-Ugric speech extraction and is haltly allied to Finnish. Finnish, English, Russian and German are too enlightenedly traditional and subordinatestood in Estonia. 2. 2. 2 The inspect in Estonia In 2004, 8 Estonian companys took allot in the MINERVA inspect of multilingualism in cultural websites. These intervening 2 annals, 1 library, 4 museums and 1 other cultural organisation: Estonian Aver Annals (http://riigi. arhiiv. ee/) Estonian Unromantic Annals (http://www. eha. ee/) Niggardly Library of Estonia (http://www. nlib. ee/) Estonian Theatre and Hush Museum (http://www. tmm. ee/) Estonian Niggardly Museum (http://www. rm. ee/) The Art Museum of Tartu (http://www. tartmus. ee/) Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Contrivance (http://www. etdm. ee/) Conservation Centre Kanut (http://www. kanut. ee/) As this was not a capacityical illustration, 34 observational websites were inspected via the Internet. These intervening 30 museums (museums delayin the synod of the Ministry of Culture, county museums and municipal museums financed by the Ministry of Culture), 20 libraries (examination and misdedicate libraries and accessible libraries) and 4 annals (governmental and niggardly archival companys). Est Museums delayin the synod of the Ministry of Culture: Accessible museums: Art Museum of Estonia Estonian Health Foresight Museum Estonian History Museum Estonian Mariseason Museum Estonian Niggardly Museum Estonian Unreserved Air Museum Estonian Sports Museum Estonian Theatre and Hush Museum http://www. ekm. ee/ http://www. tervishoiumuuseum. ee/ http://www. eam. ee/ http://www. meremuuseum. ee/ http://www. erm. ee/ http://www. evm. ee/ http://www. spordimuuseum. ee/ http://www. tmm. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + loose passage loose passage Eng Rus Ger Fin Inquiry tools Museum of Estonian Architecture http://www. arhitektuurimuuseum. ee/ Aver museums: Estonian Museum of Applied Art and Contrivance Tartu Art Museum County museums: http://www. etdm. ee/ http://www. tartmus. ee/ 18 Harjumaa Museum Hiiumaa Museum Iisaku Museum Jarvamaa Museum Laanemaa Museum Mahtra Peasantry Museum Memorial Museum of Dr. Fr. R. Kreutzwald Parish School Museum of Oskar Luts at Palamuse Polva Peasantry Museum Parnu Museum Saaremaa Museum Tartumaa Museum Valga Museum Viljandi Museum Foundations: Anton Hansen Tammsaare Museum at Vargamae Museums of Virumaa Municipal museums: Juhan Liiv Museum Muhu Museum Setu Farm Museum Libraries: Examination and misdedicate libraries: Academic Library of Tallinn University Estonian Niggardly Library Estonian Repository Library Tartu University Library Accessible libraries: Harju County Library Jogeva County Accessible Library Johvi Accessible Library Jarva County Accessible Library Kohtla-Jarve Accessible Library http://www. muuseum. harju. ee/ http://www. uuseum. hiiumaa. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/iisakumuuseum/ http://www. jarva. ee/? CatID=201 http://www. muuseum. haapsalu. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/mahtram/ http://www. hot. ee/muuseumvoru/ http://www. palmuseum. ee/ http://talurahvamuuseum. polvamaa. ee/ http://www. pernau. ee/ http://www. saaremaamuuseum. ee/ http://www. tartumaamuuseum. ee/ http://www. valgamuuseum. ee/ http://www. muuseum. viljandimaa. ee/ http://ice. estnet. ee/albuvv/? id=257 http://www. svm. ee/ http://www. muusa. ee/ http://www. muhumuuseum. ee/ http://www. hot. ee/setomuuseum/ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + - + + + + loose passage loose passage - + + + + loose passage + + - + ree passage - + - + + http://www. tulib. ee/ http://www. nlib. ee/ http://www. hoiuraamatukogu. ee/ http://www. utlib. ee/ http://www. poltsamaa. ee/index. php? lan g=est=72,661,664 http://raamat. paide. ee/ http://k-jarve. lib. ee/ + + + + + + + loose passage loose passage - + - + + + + loose passage Korvekula Library / Tartu County http://tmk. tartuvv. ee/tmk/ Accessible Library Kardla Accessible Library Laane County Accessible Library Narva Accessible Library Polva Accessible Library Parnu Accessible Library http://www. lib. haapsalu. ee/ http://www. raamat. polva. ee/ http://www. pkr. ee/ + + + + + + - Laane-Viru County Accessible Library http://www. lvkrk. ee/ + + - 19 Rapla Accessible Library Saare County Accessible Library Sillamae City Accessible Library Tallinn Accessible Library Tartu City Accessible Library Valga Accessible Library Viljandi City Library Voru County Accessible Library Archives: http://www. raplakrk. ee/ http://www. kuressaare. ee/skr/ http://www. slib. ee/ http://www. keskraamatukogu. ee/ http://www. luts. ee/ http://www. valgark. ee/ http://www. raamatukogu. viljandi. ee/ http://lib. werro. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + + + loose passage loose passage loose passage loose passage Governmental and niggardly archival companys: Estonian Filmarchive Estonian Unromantic Annals Estonian Aver Annals Niggardly Annals of Estonia http://www. filmi. arhiiv. ee/ http://www. eha. ee/ http://www. riigi. arhiiv. ee/ http://www. ra. ee/ + + + + + + + + + + loose passage loose passage - 4 of these websites were monolingual opportindivisibility 30 were multilingual as ensues: • 20 plights were beneficial in 2 speechs • 7 plights were beneficial in 3 speechs • 2 plight was beneficial in 4 speechs • 1 plight was beneficial in 5 speechs 4 outlandish speechs were dramatizeed including English (28), Russian (9), German (4) and Finnish (3). The grade to which the fulls are beneficial in these speechs varies. On the web pages there are multifarious signs of operation-in-progress: pages in other speechs personality announced or in an introduce limit of fruit. 2. 2. 3 Thesauri and inferior vocabularies used At exhibit there are no multilingual thesauri in use on the Web by any Estonian cultural company. 15 plights produce loose passage inquiry. 20 2. 3 FRANCE 2. 3. Population and Languages traditional The linguistic residence in France The gregarious conpassage Gone the embark in 1998 of the Synod Action Plan for the Understanding Indivisibility (PAGSI) that made humanization and speech two of its priorities the French synod has been actively subsistenceed and promoting examination efforts and applications in the gplump of speech. Here are some examples of this multifaceted involvement: • Taking allot in multilingual European schemes delay an notificational full (eg Linguanet : http://www. linguanet-europa. org) • Taking allot in multilingual European schemes delay a cultural full (eg Herein: http://www. european-heritage. et/sdv/herein/ , Narcisse, Minerva or Michael) • Taking allot in multilingual European schemes delay a or-laws full (eg Cismef: http://www. chu-rouen. fr/cismef/) • Taking allot in the equipment of speech (terminology confidetees ) or in the industrialisation of speech through subsistenceed the myth of basic tools and linguistic expedientss in the verbal and written areas (subsistence of the linguistic examination laboratories by the ministries in arraign of toil, humanization and notification) • Promoting perceiveledge in linguistic engineering by making it beneficial to the communities of examination operationers and industrialists (eg Technolangue scheme: http://www. technolangue. net) Delay its superb late and its enlightened dissemination the French speech can aspect the coming delay self-reliance. In manage to pledge its niggardly and interniggardly role in an forforever changing cosmos-commindivisibility the unconcealed prudence in favour of the French speech has usen into declarement all areas: the role of the French speech in the gregarious cohesion, its training (in France and abroad), its enhancement (myth of new say), its disembody through the new technologies and on the web, and its dissemination, but too its skinredhip delay the other speechs. Unconcealed redressestimate and actions usen France possesses a very superb linguistic inheritance. The speechs of France are our contemptible amiable-natured-natured and conduce to the creativity of our dominion and to its cultural bias at the face of the French speech. By the favoringion “languages of France” we moderation the regional or lad speechs that are traditionally traditional by French citizens on the estate of the Reunreserved and that are not the authoritative speech of any aver. For this infer neither Portuguese nor Chinese are speechs of France though traditional by multifarious French citizens. Aallot from the authenticity that they are not endangered speechs, they are arrangementaticly taught delayin the notification arrangement as outlandish speechs. Western Armenian is the speech of the diaspora and thus a speech of France forasmuch-as Eastern Armenian is the authoritative speech of the Reunreserved of Armenia. Colloquial Arabic is the speech that is objectively traditional by multifarious French persons. It differs from erudite or polished Arabic that is the authoritative speech of Arabic countries and is used in the resources but not by the unconcealed population. These determination criteria are beneficial from the European Charter for Regional or Lad Languages. France’s linguistic prudence is really plain delayin the European framework. 21 Languages that outvie gregarious frontiers, such as the Basque, Catalan, Flemish and Frankish speechs, frame-clear the inside multitude and the indivisibility of our contemptible cultural room. They unreserved doors on neighbouring countries. From this determination the speechs of France can be estimateed as moderations of cultural romance and as the components of a polyphonic ensemble where the suppositious, psychological and affective cosmos-peoples of the men and women of our dominion can favoring themselves loosely. On the plea of these criteria late than seventy-five speechs of France can be counted in Metropolitan France and redressseas areas. They are designated by a huge difference. In Metropolitan France: Romance, Germanic, Celtic speechs as polite as Basque, a non-IndoEuropean speech. Overseas: Creoles, Amerindian, Polynesian, Bantu (Mayotte) and Austronesian (New Caledonia) speechs, unformed others. There is too a huge demographic difference unformed these speechs. Three or foul-mouthed favorite persons are directing Arabic in France forasmuch-as Neku or Arha are traditional barely by a few dozen persons. In unformed, the sundry Creoles or the Berber speechs are traditional by encircling two favorite persons in France. The 1999 niggardly census orthodox that 26 % of adults buttress in France had arrangementaticly habitd in their boy a speech other than French – Alsatian (660 000 directers), Occitan (610 000), Oil speechs (580 000), Breton (290 000). For each of these speechs one can add an resembling – at lowest –enumerate of interrupted directers. Howforever speech transmission in France is approximately not conducive any late in the extraction dispersion and relies today mainly on the training of these speechs and their creativity in the showy estate. Metropolitan France Regional speechs : Alsatian, Basque, Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Western Flemish, Moselle Franconian, Franco-provencal, Oil speechs (Franc-Comtois, Walloon, Champenois, Picard, Norman, Gallo, Poitevin-Saintongeais, Lorrain, Bourguignon-Morvandiau), Oc speechs or Occitan (Gascon, Languedocien, Provencal, Auvergnat, Limousin, Vivarese-Alpine). Non-territorial speechs: Colloquial Arabic, Western Armenian, Berber, Judeo-Spanish, Romany, Yiddish) Overseas Caribbean area: French-domiciled Creoles: Guadeloupean, Guyanese, Martiniquan, Reunionese; Bushinenge Creoles of Guyana (Anglo-Portuguese-based): Saramaca, Aluku, Njuka, Paramaca; Amerindian speechs of Guyana: Galibi (or Kalina), Wayana, Palikur, Arawak (or Lokono), Wayampi, Emerillon; Hmong New Caledonia: twenty-eight Kanak speechs. Grande terre: Nyelayu, Kumak, Caac, Yuaga, Jawe, Nemi, Fwai, Pije, Pwaamei, Pwapwa, VohKone, Cemuhi, Paici, Ajie, Arha, Arho, Orowe, Neku, Siche, Tiri, Xaracuu, Xaragure, Drubea, Numee; Loyalty Islands: Nengone, Drehu, Iaai, Fagauvea. French Polynesia: Tahitian, Marquesan, Tuamotuan and Mangareva speechs, speechs traditional in the Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa and Ruturu speechs. Wallis and Futuna Islands: Wallisian, Futunian. Mayotte :Maore, Malagasy provincialism of Mayotte. French Sign Speech (Langue des signes francaise or LSF) It is traditionally used by French citizens and is too a speech of France. Irnot-absolute legislative conditions and regulations elucidate the assign of the speechs of France in the areas of humanization, notification and the resources. The law of 4 August 1994 not-absolute to the use of the 22 French speech specifies: “The conditions of the exhibit law dedicate delayout prejudgment to the comp and regulations not-absolute to regional speechs in France and is not intermittentlyst their use” (designation 21). The memory by the French Aver of the favoring lie held by the speechs of France in the nation’s cultural personality was materialized by the myth in October 2001 of the Delegation unconcealede a la langue francaise et aux langues de France. The Ministry of Humanization and Despatch subsistence and excite the speechs of France through its multiple grounds of intervention: hush, attainment, theatre, ethnological inheritance, annals, museums, cinema, … Moreover, favoring credits bear been allotted to the Delegation unconcealede a la langue francaise et aux langues de France for the subjoined pre-eminence objectives : • Helping unreservedations in or encircling the speechs of France; • Supported the grounds – such as the acting arts, singing, television and radio – where speech act as a vector for myth • Ensuring the nearness of the speechs of France through the new perceiveledge and despatch technologies; • Late unconcealedly, putting the gist on the interaction unformed speech and humanization and their weight in a buttress indivisibility. http://www. languesdefrance. om/ At a season when economical or cultural transactions unformed countries are growing speedily and Europe14 gets stronger a prudence that pledges the nearness of the French speech for French citizens and French niggardly concerns is asserted: (http://www. humanization. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/Actualites/communication_ministre_17_mars. pdf). The French linguistic residence has follow subordinate halt sifting and has been premeditated simultaneously by the two niggardly divorceition institutes – INSEE15 and INED16 – on the frame of the latest niggardly census: http://www. ined. fr/publications/pop_et_soc/pes376. pdf Howforever this niggardly prudence goes contemporaneously delay a determined unreservedness towards the other speechs: • Through the elevation of lad and/or regional speechs that are allot of France’s inheritance. France’s linguistic inheritance consists of 75 speechs. Howforever this register puts contemporaneously idioms that bear a difference of socio-linguistic foundation. It goes from the mainly traditional Creoles, which are the dowager speechs of late than one favorite directers and probably the regional speechs that are the most active, to the mainly written Bourguignon-Morvandiau which is barely traditional by a few persons nowadays and delay no dowager-to-baby transmission. See: http://www. humanization. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/lang-reg/rapport_cerquiglini/langues-france. html http://www. humanization. gouv. fr/dglf/politique-langue/assises/actes_assises. pdf http://www. insee. fr/fr/insee_regions/idf/rfc/docs/alapage226. pdf • Through the myth of an Observatory of Linguistic Habit (Observatoire des pratiques linguistiques). The observatory’s drudgery is to consider floating linguistic habits in France as polite as the modalities and the property of the apposition unformed speechs. The observatory was confirmed in 1999 delayin the Delegation unconcealede a la langue francaise et aux langues de France (DGLFLF), an interdepartmental advantage for humanization and despatch. It grant at registering, developing, making beneficial, the perceiveledge pertaining to France’s linguistic residence, in manage to produce perceiveledge suited for developing cultural, notificational or gregarious policies. One of its grant is too to imagine late enlightenedly perceiven the contemptible linguistic inheritance http://culture. gouv. fr/culture/dglf/lois/politiques_ling_eng_Europe. df INSEE : Institut Niggardly de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques (French Niggardly Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) INED : Institut Niggardly d’Etudes Demographiques (French Niggardly Institute for Demographic Studies) 14 15 16 23 that consists of all the speechs and linguistic varieties traditional in France and that conduce to its difference. The disposition of the observatory is arranged acircular foul-mouthed axes: • Examination and consider operation: the observatory does not convey out examination operation as such but it is subsistenceed and coordinating schemes or examination programmes on themes that are of concern to the French Ministry of Humanization and Despatch and – late unconcealedly – to the unreserved authorities, the capacityicals, the decision