Ap World History Chapter 12-14 Vocabulary

Tarek Sahyoun AP Globe Fact Unit 3 Vocabulary * Bedouins are tolerably fur the stereotypical Arabs consequently of their cosmicalization installed on herding camels and goats * I would feel open to be a Shaykh if I lived in a Bedouin portioicipation consequently they usually possessed wide herds. * It is a Muslim exercise to supplicate toward the city of Mecca. * I was surprised to hear that Muhammad's begin to Medina began the Muslim enroll. * The Umayyad clan dominated Mecca, and succeeding became a Muslim dynasty. * Muhammad is the prophet that inaugurated the holiness of Islam, which equal today is a elder holiness. My grandmother reads the Qur'an in her unoccupied duration. * If one is Muslim, one must frequently feel credulity in the Umma. * Muslims must pay zakat to the mosques to sanction them to preserve functioning. * The Five Pillars are the set of synods that all Muslims must supervene. * Caliphs were doubted by numerous consequently they took the locate of Muhammad although there were no authoritative procedures to feel someone supervene the prophet. * Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. * Abu Bakr had the claim of subsequent Muhammad as the leading caliph. * The Ridda Wars superveneing Muhammad's discard vertical the conjunction of Islam. Jihad was the Islamic hallowed war. * Mu'awiya was the leading Umayyad caliph and had a pre-eminent was Damascus * Today, Sunnis frame up most of the Muslim population. * Today, Shia’s frame up the minority of the Muslim population * Mawali fellow-creatures had numerous restrictions, although they were supposing the fair diversify to Islam. * Dhimmis were common as "the fellow-creatures of the book" who originally moderate the Jews and the Christians. * The Abbasids dynasty succeeded the Umayyads subattached a crave counterassociation had ended. * Hadiths are “traditions" of the prophet Muhammad Wazir was the pre-eminent authoritative authoritative lower the Abbasids * Dhows were used by Arab merchants, and helped them be very auspicious in speedy employment. * The Ayan was the superb planted galaxy that emerged lower the Abbasids * Al-Mahdi failed to harmonize Shi'a moderates to his dynasty and to explain the sequence collection. * Harun al-Rashid was the most illustrious of the Abbasid caliphs * Buyids were Persian invaders of the 10th date that fascinated Baghdad * The Seljuk Turks were wandering invaders from convenient Asia * There feel been divers accounts of Crusades in fact of the globe. Salah-ud-Din reconquered most of the crusader sovereigntys. * Ibn Khaldun was a eminent Muslim relator * Al-Razi was a disciple who was incorrect, and classified all subject as lewd, vegetable, and mineral. * Al-Biruni –was an departed disciple who adapted the inequitable gravity of elder minerals. * The Ulama was made up of Islamic godly scientists. * Al-Ghazali was a sparkling Islamic theologian * Sufis were Islamic mysteriouss, and divulge Islam to numerous Afro-Asian territorys. * Mongols were convenient Asian wandering fellow-creaturess, and succeeding had one of the widest sovereigntys in the globe. Chinggis Khan was a Mongol magistrate, who would succeeding illustrate a wide role in the fact of the Mongols. * Mamluks were magistrates of Egypt who descended from Turkish drudges * Muhammad ibn Qasim is respected consequently he was uniformly the Arab open who conquered Sind and made it portio of the Umayyad Sovereignty * Although they are Arabic numerals, they are legitimately Indian. * Mahmud of Ghazni was magistrate of an Afghan dynasty. * Muhammad of Ghur was a Persian magistrate of a paltry Afghan sovereignty. * Sati was a very inexorable way of departure, for widowed women had to be burned succeeding a while their departed husbands. Bhaktic cults were Hindu godly classs who stressed the concern of sound tender bonds betwixt devotees and the gods or goddesses. * Kabir was Muslim mysterious who illustrateed down the differences betwixt Hinduism and Islam * Shrivijaya was the trading sovereignty installed on the Malacca straits * Malacca was a flourishing trading city in Malaya that was ordinary a trading sovereignty subattached the discard of Shrivijaya. * Demak was most masterful of the trading specifys on the north Java seacoast. Stateless societies -societies of varying sizes arranged through despotship and lacdespot the energy of jurisdiction ground in convenientized specifys * Maghrib is the Arabic promise for northwestern Africa * The Almoravids built an sovereignty reaching from the African savanna into Sdenial * The Almohadis built an sovereignty reaching from the African savanna into Sdenial * Ethiopia is a Christian sovereignty in the loftylands of eastern Africa * Sahel is the promise for the wide grassplant encircle at the southern behalf of the Sahara. Sudanic specifys are specifys trading succeeding a while north Africa and mixing Islamic and home ways * Mali is a specify of the Malinke fellow-creatures sorted betwixt the Senegal and Niger rivers * Juula were Malinke merchants who employmentd throughout the Mali Sovereignty and west Africa * Mansa was diction of the magistrate of Mali * Ibn Batuta was an Arab voyager throughout the Muslim globe * Kankan Musa was unverified consequently of the opulence managely acrave the way on a wandering to Mecca. * Sundiata begetd a unified specify that became the Mali Empire. * Songhay was the heir specify to Mali. * Hausa specifys in-one Islamic and home beliefs. East African trading ports were modishized marketable sorts mixing African and Arab cosmicalizations. * Demographic transition is the promise for the diversify from dull to accelerated population enlargement. * Nok was the convenient Nigerian cosmicalization succeeding a while a augustly open art diction. * Yoruba was a augustly modishized Nigerian agriculturists arranged into paltry city-states. * Luba fellow-creaturess begetd a arrange of salutiferous despotship where the magistrate had jurisdictions ensuring fertility of fellow-creatures and crops. * Eminent Zimbabwe incorporated the eminentest forthcoming buildings in sub-Saharan Africa * Justinian was a Byzantine emperor who failed to reconquer the western portions of the sovereignty. The Body of Civil Law was the emperor Justinian's codification of Roman law. * The Byzantine arm consisting of compromise of chemicals that alight when laagered to infiltrate was common as Greek affection. * Icons are images of godly figures venerated by Byzantine Christians. * Iconoclasm was the possession of nonobservance of icons. * Manzikert was the Seljuk Turk ovation which resulted in detriment of the sovereignty's superb Anatolian province * Cyril and Methodius were Byzantine missionaries sent to diversify eastern Europe and Balkans. * Kiev was a marketable city in Ukraine ordinary by Scandinavians. Rurik is regarded as folower of Kievan Rus' in 855. * Vladmir I was a magistrate of Kiev that diversifyed sovereignty to Orthodox Christianity. * Russian Orthodoxy was a Russian arrange of Christianity brought from Byzantine Empire. * Yaroslav was the plain eminent Kievan despot. * Boyars were Russian plant-usurpation aristocrats. * Tatars were Mongols who conquered Russian cities. * The Middle Ages is common as the conclusion in western European fact betwixt the discard of Roman Sovereignty and the 15th date. * Gothic fabric is an architectural diction open in Western Europe. Vikings were seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted seacoastal areas of Europe. * Manorialism was a arcadian plan of reciprocal kinsmen betwixt plantlords and their countryman laborers during the Middle Ages. * Serfs were countryman unroving laborers succeeding a whilein the manorial plan. * The three-field plan was the exercise of dividing plant into thirds, rotating betwixt two opposed crops and pasturage. * Clovis was a despot of the Franks. * The Carolingians was tyrantly stock of Franks. * Charles Martel was the leading Carolingian despot of the Franks. * Charlemagne was a Carolingian despot who ordinary wide sovereignty in France and Germany. Hallowed Roman emperors were gregarious heirs to Charlemagne's sovereignty in northern Italy and Germany. * Feudalism was a specific kinsmenhip during the Middle Ages by which eminenter employers supposing plant to lesser employers in revert for soldierlike employment. * Vassals were members of the soldierlike galaxy who accepted plant or a dignity from a employer in revert for soldierlike employment and faithfulness. * The Capetians were a French dynasty. * William the Conqueror invaded Engplant from Normandy. * The Magna Carta represented law of reciprocal limits and obligations betwixt magistrates and feudal council, and the nonsubjection of law. Parliaments are bodies representing claimd classs. * The Hundred Years War was a elder encounter betwixt Engplant and France. * Pope Modish II arranged the leading Crusade in 1095. * Investment is the exercise of ordinance of bishops * St. Clare of Assisi is the folower of a woman's cenobitical manage * Gregory VII is a pope who attempted to unoccupied habitation from temporal control; quarreled succeeding a while Hallowed Roman Emperor Henry IV balance exercise of lay investment of bishops * Thomas Aquinas was a account of one of the eminent syntheses of medieval lore. Scholasticism is a dominant medieval scientific path. * Troubadours gave a new treasure to the feeling of passion in Western lays. * The Hanseatic League was an constitute of north German and Scandinavian cities for the design of establishing a marketable combination * Jacques Coeur’s success as banker to the French despoty demonstrates new series of medieval communication * Guilds stressed warranty and reciprocal control; poor fraternity, regulated apprenticeships, guaranteed amiable operationmanship; held a claimd locate in cities * The Black Discard significantly stunted Europe's population. Columbus referred to the Native Americans as Indians. * Toltecs ordinary pre-eminent at Tula superveneing travel into convenient Mesoamerican plateau; soundly militaristic ethic, including cult of cosmical atonement. * Aztecs so common as the Mexica ordinary a wide sovereignty. * Tenochtitlan became sort of Aztec jurisdiction. * Calpulli were clans in Aztec portioicipation. * I contemplate it would be tolerably calm to operation on a Chinampa. * Pochteca specialized in crave-distance employment in softness items. Inca politicalism was an exposition describing Inca portioicipation as a character of utopia * The Inca was a class of clans sorted at Cuzco. * Pachacuti began the soldierlike antagonism that notable the creation of an Inca sovereignty * Huayna Capac brought the sovereignty to its eminentest quantity * Split heritage is an Inca exercise of magistrate descent * Curacas were national magistrates who the Inca left in station in revert for faithfulness. * Tambos were provide sorts for Inca armies Quipu -plan of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in locate of a communication plan; could compfuse numerical and other characters of advice for censuses and financial chronicles * Conclusion of the Six Dynasties -era of faithful campaign (220-589) floating the numerous sovereigntys that superveneed the discard of the Han * Wendi -member of protuberant northern Chinese source during the era of Six Dynasties; ordinary Sui dynasty in 589, succeeding a while buttress from northern wandering fellow-creaturess * Li Yuan -Duke of Tang; subserve for Yangdi; took balance the sovereignty subattached the assassination of Yangdi; 1st Tang magistrate * Ministry of Common Rites -administered the examinations for specify station during the Tang dynasty * Jinshi -diction absorbed students who passed the most obscure examinations; became prime for lofty station * Chan Buddhism -call Zen in Japan; stressed cogitation and sagacity of spontaneous and showy beauty; vulgar floating the galaxy * Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism -emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; vulgar floating the masses * Wuzong -Tang emperor (841-847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and stunted bias of Buddhism in boon of Confucianism * Khitan pastorals -founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a menace to Song; very fur biasd by Chinese cosmicalization * Zhao Kuangyin -open who grounded Song dynasty; took tyrantly spectry of Taizu * Zhu Xi -most protuberant Neo-Confucian scientist during the Song dynasty; stressed concern of applying scientific laws to common,ordinary duration * Wang Anshi -Confucian scientist and pre-eminent subserve of a Song magistrate in 1070s; introduced sweeping reforms installed on Legalism; advocated eminenter specify interference in portioicipation * Southern Song -smaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided balance one of the eminentest cultural reigns in globe fact * Jurchens -founders of Jin sovereignty that succeeded the Liao in northern China; outlying most of Yellow River basin and agencys Song to fly south * Grand Canal -eminent canal plan begun by Yangdi; attached Yellow River territory to the Yangtze basin * Junks -Chinese ships equipped succeeding a while infiltratetight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant agency in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula * Flying money -Chinese nobility channel that supposing testimonials to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; stunted hazard of robbery; an forthcoming arrange of commonity * Footbinding -male imposed exercise to intercede women's feet in manage to produce size; done denial and scientific change-of-place; helped to immure women to the stockhold * Bi Sheng -11th c artisan; devised technique of printing succeeding a while dissoluble character; made it likely for China to be the most synchronous savant civilziation * Taika reforms -attempt to reframe Japanese despot into an absolutist Chinese-diction emperor; moderate attempts to beget administrative bureaucracy and countryman conscript soldierly * Fujiwara -mid-9th c Japanese dignified source; exercised irregular bias balance highest affairs; aided in discard of highest jurisdiction * Bushi -regional hero leaders in Japan; determined paltry sovereigntys from fortresses; administered the law, supervised common operations projects, and serene revenues; built up individual armies * Samurai -mounted troops of the bushi; submissive to national employers, not the emperor * Seppuku -ritual suicide in Japan; so common as hari-kiri; demonstrated fortitude and was a resources to recover source nobility * Gumpei wars -waged for five years from 1180 on Honshu betwixt the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in damnation of Taira * Bakufu -soldierlike council ordinary by the Minamoto superveneing Gumpei wars; sorted at Kamakura; retained emperor, but legitimate jurisdiction resided in soldierlike council and samurai * Shoguns -soldierlike leaders of the bakufu Hojo -a hero source closely homogeneous succeeding a while the Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto magistrates; determined in spectry of emperor * Ashikaga Takuaji -member of Minamoto source; balancethrew KamaKura regime and ordinary Ashikaga shogunate (1336-1573); herd emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino * Daimyos -waremployer magistrates of paltry specifys superveneing Onin war and dissension of Ashikaga shogunate; usurpation indistinct into unified and terminable mini-states * Choson -earliest Korean sovereignty; conquered by Han in 109 BCE * Koguryo -tribal fellow-creatures of northern Korea; ordinary an dogged sovereignty in the northern half of the peninsula; incorporateed cultural Sinification * Sinification -wide despatches of Chinese cosmicalization in other territorys * Yi -dynasty (1392-1910); succeeded Koryo dynasty subattached Mongol invasions; vertical dignified mastery and Chinese bias * Trung Sisters -leaders of a resistance in Vietnam abutting Chinese synod in 39 CE; demonstrates concern of women in Vietnamese portioicipation * Khmers and Chams -Indianized Vietnamese fellow-creaturess defeated by northern council at Hanoi * Nguyen -southern Vietnamese dynasty succeeding a while pre-eminent at Hue that hallenged northern Trinh dynasty succeeding a while sort at Hanoi * Chinggis Khan -born in 1170s; elected highest Mongol magistrate (khagan) in 1206; began the Mongols fuse to globe jurisdiction; died 1227 * Tumens -basic engaging units of Mongol agencys; made up of 10,000 cavalrymen divided into paltryer units * Tangut -rulers of Xi-Xia sovereignty of northwest China; during the southern Song conclusion; conquered by Mongols in 1226 * Shamanistic holiness -Mongol beliefs focused on sort spirits * Batu -grandson of Chinggis Khan and magistrate of Golden Horde; invaded Russian in 1236 * Golden Horde -one of foul-mouthed territoryal subdivisions of the Mongol Sovereignty subattached discard of Chinggis Khan; conquered and determined Russua during the 13th and 14th c * Prester John -a fabulous Christian despot whose sovereignty supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some conceit he was Chinggis Khan * Ilkhan khanate -one of foul-mouthed territoryal subdivisions of the Mongol sovereignty subattached the discard of Chinggis Khan; equaltually moderate fur of Abbasid sovereignty * Hulegu -grandson of Chinggis Khan and synod of Ilkhan khanate; fascinated and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad * Mamluks -Muslim drudge heros; ordinary dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars defeated Mongols in 1260 * Kubilai Khan -grandson of Chinggis Khan; conquered China; ordinary Yuan dynasty in 1271 * Chabi -influential helpmate of Kubilai Khan; demonstrated denial of Mongol women to incorporate restrictive political conventions of Confucian China * Nestorians -Asian Christian sect; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions * White Lotus Participation -secret godly portioicipation consecrated to balancethrow of Yuan dynasty * Ju Yuanzhang -Chinese countryman who led auspicious rebellion abutting Yuan; grounded Ming dynasty * Timur-i-Lang -plain elder pastoral leader; 14th c, common to the West as Tamerlane; Turkic magistrate of Samarkand; instituted attacks in Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, southern Russia; sovereignty disintegrated subattached his discard in 1405 * Ottoman Sovereignty -Turkish sovereignty ordinary in Asia Minor and equaltually extending through the Middle East and the Balkans; conquered Constantinople in 1453 and ended Byzantine Sovereignty * Ming Dynasty -replaced Mongal Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; plained until 1644; initially mounted wide employment opportune to southern Asia and Africa; succeeding fast on inner product succeeding a whilein China * Zheng He -Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded opportune throughout the Indian Ocean * Renaissance -cultural and gregarious galaxy change-of-place inauguration in Italy circa 1400; rested on modish amelioration and expanding communication; done iterature and art succeeding a while palpably further temporal priorities than those of the European Middle Ages * Portugal, Castile, and Aragon -regional Iberian sovereigntys; portioicipated in reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; open a powerful soldierlike and godly agenda * Vivaldi brothers -Genoese explorers who attempted to furnish a western way to the "Indies"; precursors of European drive into southern Atlantic * Henry the Navigator -Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the agencys give in plain postclassical Europe * Ethnocentrism -judging foreigners by the standards of one's own class; leads to collections in interpreting globe fact